Hrvoje Valpotić, Renata Barić-Rafaj, Ivona Žura Žaja, Silvijo Vince, Marko Samardžija, Romana Turk, Dražen Đuričić, Tomislav Dobranić, Przemyslaw Sobiech, Luka Cvetnić, Ivica Valpotić


The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of peroral treatment of 4-week old pigs at weaning (Day 0) with a single dose of levamisole (LEVA) or polyoxyethyle-polyoxypropylene (POE-POP), well known immunobiotics (IBC) and promising alternatives to dietary antibiotic growth promoters (AGP), on systemic innate and adaptive immunity by determining phagocytosis (PHC) and microbicidity (MBC) efficiency of their monocytes (MO) and granulocytes (GR), changes of serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and haptoglobin (HpG) profiles and kinetics of CD4+ CD8+ T cells expression during 5 weeks following the treatments. Levels of CRP were decreased by either POE-POP or LEVA (P<0.05) at Day 7 and 21, respectively. LEVA-treated pigs had increased levels of HpG (P<0.05) at Day 14 and 21, whereas POE-POP-treated pigs had decreased and increased levels (P<0.05) at Day 7 and 21, respectively. Both IBC stimulated in vitro PHC of GR (from Day 7 to 35) and MBC of MO (at Day 35) from treated pigs (P<0.05). MO from POE-POP-treated pigs exhibited increased PHC (P<0.05) at Day 35, whereas GR from LEVA- or POE-POP-treated pigs showed increased MBC (P<0.05) at Day 7 and 35, respectively. The pigs treated by LEVA or POE-POP had higher proportions of CD4+ CD8+ T cells (P<0.05) from Day 14 to 35 or Day 28 to 35, respectively. Tested IBC showed capability of stimulating particularly cellular components of nonspecific and specific immunity during early postweaning period before pigs reach adult immunocompetence values, and thus could be considered as potent immunostimulators in swine production.

Key words: synthetic immunobiotics; innate/adaptive immunity; weaned pig


Namen raziskave je bil ugotoviti vpliv lavamisola (LEVA) in polyoxyethylen-polyoxypropylena (POE-POP), znanih imunobiotikov, ki bi jih lahko uporabljali v praÅ¡iÄereji za boljÅ¡i prirast namesto antibiotikov, na sistemsko prirojeno in pridobljeno imunost pri odstavljenih, 4 tedne starih pujskih. Vsem živalim smo LEVA in POE-POP dajali preko ust (peroralno) in tedensko v odobju petih tednov dodajanja imunobiotikov ugotavljali stopnjo fagocitoze in protimikrobno aktivnost monocitov in granulocitov, raven serumskega C-reaktivnega proteina (CRP), profil haptoglobina (HpG) ter raven prisotnosti limfocitov T, ki izražajo gena CD4 in CD8 v krvi. Rezultati so pokazali, da je bila raven serumskega CRP znižana pri pujskih, ki so prejemali tako LEVA kot POE-POP 7. in 21. dan raziskave (p < 0,05). Pujski, ki so prejemali LEVA, so imeli zviÅ¡an HpG 14. in 21. dan raziskave (p < 0,05), medtem ko so imeli pujski, ki so prejemali POE-POP, 7. dan raziskave HpG znižan, 21. dan pa zviÅ¡an (p < 0,05). Oba imunobiotika sta v pogojih in vitro dvignila stopnjo fagocitoze pri granulocitih in protimikrobno aktivnost monocitov na 35. dan raziskave (p < 0,05). Pujski, ki so prejemali en ali drugi imunobiotik, so imeli 35. dan raziskave viÅ¡je vrednosti limfocitov T, ki so izražali CD4 in CD8, od vrednosti na 14. ali 28. dan raziskave (p < 0,05). Rezultati raziskave torej kažejo, da sta oba imunobiotika pozitivno vplivala na izbrane kazalce delovanja imunskega sistema in sta potencialno zanimiva za uporabo v praÅ¡iÄereji za spodbujanje delovanja imunskega sistema in s tem boljÅ¡i prirast praÅ¡iÄev.

KljuÄne besede: odstavljeni pujski; umetni imunobiotiki; prirojena imunost; pridobljena imunost;

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