ACUTE AND SUB-ACUTE TOXICITY STUDIES ON Combretum dolichopetalum ENGL. & DIELS LEAVES

Chinedum U. Emelike, Ugochukwu S.B. Anyaehie, Eghosa E. Iyare, Chiemeziem A. Obike, Chinedum Eleazu, Chukwuma Chukwu

Abstract


We studied the acute and sub-acute toxicity of Combretum dolichopetalum leaves in experimental mice and rats respectively using standard techniques. The LD50 of the methanol extract of Combretum dolichopetalum leaves as carried out in experimental mice was obtained as more than 5000 mg/kg body weight. Administration of graded doses (100, 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg) of the extract for 21 days resulted in increases in body weights, white blood cells (WBC), Neutrophils, red blood cells (RBC), packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin (HGB), mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean cell haemoglobin (MCH) of the rats; but did not affect (P>0.05) their monocytes, mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), platelet (PLT) levels. All doses of the extract did not affect (P>0.05) the sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate, urea, creatinine, total and conjugated bilirubin, alanine and aspartate amino transaminase, aspartate amino transaminase, alkaline phosphatase activities; relative liver and kidney weights of the rats, a finding that was corroborated by histology of the liver and the kidney. The extract at 100 mg/kg had no effect on the PCV and HB of the rats. The study suggested the therapeutic potentials of Combretum dolichopetalum as a blood booster. Finally, the study revealed the safety in the usage of Combretum dolichopetalum leaves in Nigerian ethnomedicine.

Key words: ethnopharmacology; Combretum dolichopetalum; toxicology; herbal medicine; nutraceutical; pharmacotherapy


AKUTNA IN SUBAKUTNA ŠTUDIJA TOKSIČNOSTI LISTOV RASTLINE Combretum dolichopetalum

Povzetek: S standardnimi metodami smo pri poskusnih miših in podganah proučevali akutno in subakutno toksičnost listov Combretum dolichopetalum. LD50 metanolnega izvlečka listov Combretum dolichopetalum je bil pri poskusnih miših nad 5000  mg/kg telesne teže. Enaindvajsetdnevno dodajanje naraščajočih odmerkov (100, 200, 400 in 800 mg/kg) izvlečka je pri poskusnih podganah povzročilo povečanje telesne mase, števila belih krvničk (WBC), nevtrofilcev, rdečih krvničk (RBC), volumna stisnjenih  eritrocitov (PCV), hemoglobina (HGB), povprečnega volumna eritrocitov (MCV) in povprečno vsebino hemoglobina v eritrocitih (MCH), ni pa vplivalo (p > 0,05) na število monocitov, povprečno koncentracijo hemoglobina v volumnu eritrocitov (MCHC)  ter na povprečno vrednost trombocitov (PLT). Nobeden od odmerkov izvlečka ni vplival na (p > 0,05) vrednosti natrija, kalija, klorida, bikarbonata, sečnine, kreatinina, skupnega bilirubina in vezanega bilirubina, alanina, aspartatne amino transaminaze, aspartatne amino transaminaze, alkalne fosfataze; relativno težo jeter in ledvic podgan, kar je bilo v skladu s histološko preiskavo jeter in  ledvic. Izvleček v odmerku 100 mg/kg ni vplival na PCV in HB podgan. Študija tako kaže na možnost uporabe rastline Combretum  dolichopetalum za izboljšanje krvne slike. Raziskava je dokazala varnost uporabe listov Combretum dolichopetalum, ki se tradicionalno uporabljajo v Nigeriji v etnomedicini.

Ključne besede: etnofarmakologija; Combretum dolichopetalum; toksikologija; zeliščna zdravila; hranila; farmakoterapija


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.26873/SVR-899-2020

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