Walid Elmonir, Hader Aglan, Ehab Elmahallawy, Wael El-Tras


Global emergence of antibiotic-resistant food-borne pathogens is a major public health problem. This study aimed to determine the potential zoonotic risk of Staphylococcus aureus in buffalo's milk in Egypt. A total of 102 raw buffalo’s milk samples and 51 human nasal swabs were collected at Kafrelsheikh city, Egypt. All samples were examined for occurrence of S. aureus. Detected isolates were characterised based on DNase activity, mecA gene acquisition, and antibiotic resistance patterns. S. aureus was detected in 33.3% of buffalo's milk samples and29.4% of human nasal swabs. Multiple drug-resistant S.aureus (MDRSA) represented 88.2% and 90% of buffalo and human S. aureus isolates, respectively. Buffalo and human S. aureus isolates showed highest resistance rate for erythromycin (100%), and lowest resistance rate for gentamicin (22.2%). Interestingly, there was no significant difference in resistance patterns between methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) (P<0.46 - 0.97). One-third of the detected S. aureus phenotypes (5/15, 33.3%) were identical between buffalo and human isolates. Moreover, there was no significant difference in antibiotic resistance patterns between buffalo and human isolates (P<0.1 - 0.97).This study highlights the potential public health risk of MDRSA transmission via buffalo's milk.

Key words: buffalo’s milk, S. aureus, DNase, mecA, antibiogram, zoonotic risk

Full Text:



Laxminarayan, R., Matsoso, P., Pant, S., Brower, C., Rottingen, J.A., Klugman, K. and Davies, S. Access to effective antimicrobials: a worldwide challenge. Lancet 2016;387: 168–75.

Jayaweera, J. and Kumbukgolla, W.W. Antibiotic resistance patterns of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolated from livestock and associated farmers in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka. Germs2017;7: 132–9.

Rozgonyi, F., Kocsis, E., Kristof, K. and Nagy, K. Is MRSA more virulent than MSSA? Clin Microbiol Infect 2007;13: 843–5.

Becker, K., Ballhausen, B., Kock, R. and Kriegeskorte, A. Methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus isolates: the "mec alphabet" with specific consideration of mecC, a mec homolog associated with zoonotic S. aureus lineages. Int J Med Microbiol 2014;304: 794–804.

Pamuk, S., Yildirim, Y., ŞEKER, E., Gürler, Z., Kara, R. A survey of the occurrence and properties of methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus intermedius in water buffalo milk and dairy products in Turkey. International Journal of Dairy Technology2012; 65: 416–22.

Asiimwe, B.B., Baldan, R., Trovato, A. and Cirillo, D.M. Prevalence and molecular characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin resistant strains, isolated from bulk can milk and raw milk products in pastoral communities of South-West Uganda. BMC Infect Dis 2017;17: 422.

Elmonir, W., Abo-Remela, E.M. and Sobeih, A. Public health risks of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus in raw bovine milk sold in informal markets in Egypt. . Infect Dev Ctries 2018;12: 533–41.

Juhasz-Kaszanyitzky, E., Janosi, S., Somogyi, P., Dan, A., van der Graaf-van Bloois, L., van Duijkeren, E. and Wagenaar, J.A. MRSA transmission between cows and humans. Emerg Infect Dis 2007;13: 630–2.

Borghese, A. Recent developments of buffaloes in Europe and Near East. Proc of the Seventh World Buffalo Congress, Manila, Philippines 20 to 23 Oct 2004: 10–6.

FAOSTAT Food and agriculture organization statistics.2016available at: (accessed in 10-10-2018).

Roberts, D.G., M. Practical food microbiology, 3rd edition. Oxford: Blackwell publishing Ltd. 2003, 206 p.

FDA, Bacteriological Analytical Manual Online. Chapter 12: Staphylococcus aureus (January 2001 update) Available: https://wwwfdagov/Food/FoodScienceResearch/LaboratoryMethods/ucm071429htm (Accessed: 10 October 2018).

MacFaddin, J.F. Biochemical tests for identification medical bacteria. . Warery Press Inc, Baltimore, Md 21202,2000, USA.

Murakami, K., Minamide, W., Wada, K., Nakamura, E., Teraoka, H. and Watanabe, S. Identification of methicillin-resistant strains of staphylococci by polymerase chain reaction. J Clin Microbiol 1991;29: 2240–4.

Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute [CLSI] Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing; twenty second Informational Supplement. CLSI document M100-S22, 2012,ISBN 1-56238-785–5.

Rahimi, E. and Alian, F. Presence of enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus in cow, camel, sheep, goat, and buffalo bulk tank milk. Veterinarski Arhiv2013; 83: 23–30.

Ungureanu, A., Zlatian, O., Mitroi, G., Drocas, A., Tirca, T., Calina, D., Dehelean, C., Docea, A.O., Izotov, B.N., Rakitskii, V.N., Cioboata, R., Spandidos, D.A., Tsatsakis, A.M. and Gaman, A. Staphylococcus aureus colonisation in patients from a primary regional hospital. Mol Med Rep 2017;16: 8771–80.

Rahimi, F., Bouzari, M., Katouli, M. and Pourshafie, M. Antibiotic Resistance Pattern of Methicillin Resistant and Methicillin Sensitive Staphylococcus aureus Isolates in Tehran, Iran. Jundishapur J Microbiol 2012;6: 144–9.

Aires-de-Sousa, M., Parente, C.E., Vieira-da-Motta, O., Bonna, I.C., Silva, D.A. and de Lencastre, H. Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from buffalo, bovine, ovine, and caprine milk samples collected in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Appl Environ Microbiol2007; 73: 3845–9.

Aqib, A.I., Ijaz, M., Anjum, A.A., Malik, M.A.R., Mehmood, K., Farooqi, S.H. and Hussain, K. Antibiotic susceptibilities and prevalence of Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolated from bovine milk in Pakistan. Acta Trop 2017;176: 168–72.

Yokoyama, T., Honda, J., Kawayama, T., Kajimura, K. and Oizumi, K. Increased incidence of beta-lactamase-plasmid negative, high level methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Kurume Med J 1996;43: 199–206.

Nimmo, G.R. and Coombs, G.W. Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Australia. Int J Antimicrob Agents2008; 31: 401–10.

Unger, N.R., Osiyemi, O.O., Richardson, R.M., Jose Menajovsky, J. and Jennifer Kuretski, J. Ceftaroline and gentamicin for the treatment of daptomycin-non-susceptible meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia and endocarditis in a pregnant patient. JMM Case Reports 2014; DOI 10.1099/jmmcr.0.002394.

Li, T., Lu, H., Wang, X., Gao, Q., Dai, Y., Shang, J. and Li, M. Molecular Characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus Causing Bovine Mastitis between 2014 and 2015. Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2017;7:127.

Klein, E.Y., Jiang, W., Mojica, N., Tseng, K.K., McNeill, R., Cosgrove, S.E. and Perl, T.M. National Costs Associated with Methicillin-susceptible and Methicillin-resistant S. aureus Hospitalizations in the United States, 2010–4. Clin Infect Dis2018; doi: 10.1093/cid/ciy399.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Gerbičeva 60, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia, T: +386 (0)1 47 79 100, F: +386 (0)1 28 32 243, E:
Published by