Walid Elmonir, Hader Essa, Wael El-Tras


Dairy farms are major sources for zoonotic Staphylococcus aureus pathogens and their antibiotic resistance genes. This study was conducted to assess critical sources and factors related to dissemination of S. aureus and its resistance genes within dairy farms in Egypt. In addition, workers' knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAPs) was evaluated. A total of 102 pooled samples were collected from 3 medium-scale dairy farms in Egypt. S. aureus was detected in 72.5% of the examined samples: lactating cows (72.9%), workers (81.5%), barns environment (88.9%), milking equipment (40%), and bulk tank milk (100%). Cows (udder milk and nostril), workers (hand skin and nostril), barns, open-sides parlor, and lack of acid rinse were associated with S. aureus contamination of milking equipment (P= 0.004 - 0.04). Methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA, mecA+), vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA, vanA+) and methicillin-vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (MVRSA, mecA+-vanA+) represented 27.5%, 5% and 12.5% of S. aureus isolates, respectively. This is the first report of MVRSA in dairy farms in Egypt. For workers KAPs, 48.7% didn't know milk-borne zoonoses, while their high risk practices included consumption of raw milk (52.2%), lack of hand wash (48.7%), and willing to work with sore throat (82.6%). This study highlights the critical sources of S. aureus pathogens and their antibiotic resistance genes in dairy farms. This will help in reforming biosecurity plans in dairy farms; an urgent demand for consumers safety in Egypt.

Key words: Staphylococcus aureus ecology; dairy farms; antibiotic resistance genes; public health implications

Full Text:



Haran KP, Godden SM, Boxrud D, Jawa-hir S, Bender JB, &Sreevatsan S. Prevalence and Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus, Including Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from Bulk Tank Milk from Minnesota Dairy Farms. Journal of Clinical Mi-crobiology 2012; 50: 688–95.

Smith TC. Livestock-Associated Staphylo-coccus aureus: The United States Experience. PLoS Pathogens 2015; 11: e1004564.

Lee SH, Camargo CH, Gonçalves JL, Cruz AG, Sartori BT, Machado MB & Oliveira CA. Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus iso-lates in milk and the milking environment from small-scale dairy farms of São Paulo, Brazil, using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Journal of Dairy Science 2012; 95: 7377–83.

Lim SK, Nam HM, Jang GC, Lee HS, Jung SC & Kim TS. Transmission and persistence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in milk, environment, and workers in dairy cattle farms. Foodborne Pathogens and Diseases 2013;10:731–6.

Locatelli C, Cremonesi P, Caprioli A, Car-fora V, Ianzano A, Barberio A, Morandi S, Casula A, Castiglioni B, Bronzo V &Moroni P. Occurrence of methicillin-resistant Staphylo-coccus aureus in dairy cattle herds, related swine farms, and humans in contact with herds. Journal of Dairy Science 2017; 100: 608–19.

Ayele Y, Gutema FD, Edao BM, Girma R, Tufa TB, Beyene TJ, Tadesse F, Geloye M &Beyi AF. Assessment of Staphylococcus au-reus along milk value chain and its public health importance in Sebeta, central Oromia, Ethiopia. BMC Microbiology 2017; 17: 141.

Centers for Disease Control and Preven-tion (CDC). Staphylococcus aureus resistant to vancomycin--United States, 2002. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) 2002; 51: 565–7

Rahimipour F, Ghazvini K&Youssefi M. Reports of Vancomycin-Resistant Staphylococ-cus aureus from Middle East Countries, Ar-chives of Clinical Infectious Diseases 2018;13: e59522.

Feng Y, Qi W, Xu-rong W, Ling W, Xin-pu L, Jin-yin L, Shi-dong Z, Hong-sheng L. Ge-netic characterization of antimicrobial resis-tance in Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine mastitis cases in Northwest China. Jour-nal of Integrative Agriculture 2016; 15:2842–7.

Roberson JR, Fox LK, Hancock DD, Gay JM &Besser TE. Ecology of Staphylococ-cus aureus isolated from various sites on dairy farms. Journal of Dairy Science 1994; 77: 3354–64.

Elmonir W, Abo-Remela EM &Sobeih A. Public health risks of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus in raw bovine milk sold in informal markets in Egypt. Journal of Infec-tion in Developing Countries 2018; 12: 533–41.

Amghalia E, AL-Haj N, Shamsudin M, Radu S, Rosli R, Neela V & Rahim R. Multi-plex PCR assays for the detection of clinically relevant antibiotic resistance genes in Staphylo-coccus aureus isolated from Malaysian hospi-tals. Research Journal of Biological Scienc-es2009; 4: 444-–8.

Jørgensen HJ, Mørk T &Rørvik LM. The occurrence of Staphylococcus aureus on a farm with small-scale production of raw milk cheese. Journal of Dairy Science2005; 88: 3810–7.

Garipcin M &Seker E. Nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in cattle

and farm workers in Turkey. VeterinarskiArhiv 2015; 85: 117–29.

Dimitracopoulos G, Kalkani-Boussiakou H &Papavassiliou J. Animal fecal carriership and biotypes of Staphylococcus aureus. Ap-plied and Environmental Microbiology 1977; 34: 461–4.

Piccinini R, Cesaris L, Daprà V, Borro-meo V, Picozzi C, Secchi C &Zecconi A. The role of teat skin contamination in the epidemi-ology of Staphylococcus aureus intramammary infections. Journal of Dairy Science 2009; 76: 36–41.

Zadoks RN, van Leeuwen WB, Kreft D, Fox LK, Barkema HW, Schukken YH & van BelkumA.Comparison of Staphylococcus aure-us isolates from bovine andhuman skin, milking equipment, and bovine milk by phage typ-ing,pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and binary typing. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2002; 40:3894–902.

Bhalla A, Aron DC &Donskey CJ. Staphylococcus aureus intestinal colonization is associated with increased frequency of S. aure-us on skin of hospitalized patients. BMC Infec-tious Diseases 2007; 7: 105.

Elmoslemany AM, Keefe GP, Dohoo IR, Wichtel JJ, Stryhn H &Dingwell RT. The asso-ciation between bulk tank milk analysis for raw milk quality and on-farm management practic-es. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 2010; 95: 32–40.

Reinemann DJ, Wolters GMVH, Billon P, Lind O, Rasmussen MD. Review of practices for cleaning and sanitation of milking machines. 2000. Available at 2011/10/review-of-practices-for-cleaning.pdf (Accessed 10 No-vember 2018).

Rossi F, Diaz L, Wollam A, Panesso D, Zhou Y, Rincon S, Narechania A, Xing G, Di Gioia TS, Doi A, Tran TT, Reyes J, Munita JM, Carvajal LP, Hernandez-Roldan A, Brandão D, van der Heijden IM, Murray BE, Planet PJ, Weinstock GM & Arias CA. Transferable van-comycin resistance in a community-associated MRSA lineage. New England Journal of Medi-cine 2014; 370: 1524–31.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Gerbičeva 60, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia, T: +386 (0)1 47 79 100, F: +386 (0)1 28 32 243, E:
Published by