Adel Ramou, Ismail EL- Kon, Essam Almadaly, Aly Aly, Hasballah Abo EL- Ghate


A total of 36 pluriparous buffaloes were used to study the uterine morphometry in response to serum estradiol concentrations and associated estrogen receptors (ERs) expression in modified ovsync protocols. The buffaloes were assigned to St-ovsync, CIDR-sync and Insulin- sync (n=12 for each). The St-ovsync consisted of two IM injections of 20µg buserelin on the Day 0 (GnRH1) and on the Day 9 (GnRH2) and an IM injection of 500 µg of cloprostenol sodium (Estrumate) on the Day 7. Buffaloes in CIDR-sync and Insulin-sync protocols were treated as in the St-Ovsync protocol in addition to intravaginal insertion of CIDR from the Day 0 to 7 in case CIDR-sync and SC injection of Insulin at a dose of 0.25 lu/kg on the Days 7, 8 and 9 in Insulin-sync.  Blood samples were collected and the uterine wall thickness (UWT) was simultaneously measured by transrectal ultrasonography on the Days 0, 3, 5, 7, 8 and 9. Endometrial biopsy samples were collected from five buffaloes per group for quantifying the abundance of estrogen receptors. The UWT on the Days 3 and 5 showed a decrease (p<0.05) while the serum p4 concentration on the Day 3 showed an increase (p<0.05) in eventually diagnosed pregnant (EDP) buffaloes in CIDR-sync compared with their counterparts in either St-Ovsync or Insulin-sync. On the Day 9, although there was a decrease in the serum E2 concentration in CIDR-sync compared with either St-Ovsync or Insulin-sync in EDP buffaloes, there was an increase (p<0.05) in the ER mRNA expression in CIDR-sync compared with St-Ovsync. It could be concluded that modifying the St-Ovsync, by p4 supplementation through intravaginal insertion of CIDR from the Day 0 to 7 or by SC injection of insulin on the Days 7, 8 and 9, could modulate uterine morphometry such conductive to proper fertility response.

Key words: Erα; uterine wall thickness; Ovsync

Full Text:



Bridges G A, Mussard M L, Hessler L A, Day M L. Comparison of follicular dynamics and hormone concentration between 7-day and 5-day co-sync + CIDR program in primiparous beef cows. Theriogenology2014; 81: 632–8.

Mesquita F S, Pugliesi G, Scolari S C, Franca M R, Ramos R S, Olivera M, Papa P C, Bressan F F, Meirelles F V, Silva L A, Nogueira G P, Membrive C M B, Binelli M. Manipulation of sex steroidal mileu affects endometrial but not luteal gene expression in early diestrous Nelore cows. Theriogenology 2015; 81: 861–9.

Araujo E R, Sponchiado M, Pugliesi G, Hoeck V V, Mesquita F S, Membrive C M B, Binelli M. Spatio-specific regulation of endo-crine responsive gene transcription by preovula-tory profiles in the bovine reproductive tract. Reprod Fertil Dev 2015; 28: 1533–44.

Souza A H, Narciso C D, Batista E O S, Carvalho P D, Wiltbank M C. Effect of uterine environment on embryo production and fertility in cows. AnimReprod2014; 11: 159–67.

Hericks D M, Hill J R, Dickey J F, La-mond D R. Plasma hormone levels in beef cows with induced multiple ovulation. J Reprod Fertil 1973; 35: 225–33.

Pierson R A, and Ginther, O J. Ultraso-nographic appearance of the bovine uterus dur-ing the estrous cycle. J A M Vet Assoc 1987; 190: 995–1001.

Bonafos L D, Kot K, Ginther O J. Physical characteristics of the uterus during the bovine estrous cycle and early pregnancy. Theri-ogenology 1995; 43:713–21.

Wiltbank M, Lopez H, Sartori R, Sangsritavong S, Gumen A. Changes in repro-ductive physiology of lactating dairy cows due to elevated steroid metabolism. Theriogenolo-gy2006; 65: 17–29.

Perry G A, Smith M F, Lucy M C, Green J A, Parks T E, Mac-Neil, M D, Roberts J A, Geary T W. Relationship between follicular size at insemination and pregnancy success. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2005; 102: 5268–73.

Bridges G A, Mussard M L, Pate J L,Ott T L, Hansen TR, Day M L. Impact of preovula-tory estradiol concentration on conceptus de-velopment and uterine gene expression. Anim Reprod Sci 2012; 133: 16–26.

Okumu L A, Forde N, Fahy A G, Fitz Patrick E, Roche J F, Crowe MA, lonergan P. The effect of elevated progesterone and preg-nancy status on m RNA expression and locali-zation of progesterone and oestrogen receptors in the bovine uterus. Reproduction 2010 ;104: 143–3.

Kimmins S, Maclaren L A. Oestrous cy-cle and pregnancy effects on the distribution of oestrogen and progesterone receptors in bovine endometrium. Placenta 2001; 22: 742–8.

Ing N H, Tornesi M B. Etrogen Upregu-lates estrogen receptors and progesterone recep-tor gene expression in specific ovine uterine cells. Biol Reprod 1997; 56: 1205–15.

Meikle A, Sahlin L, Ferraris A, Masironi B, Blanc J E, Rodriguez-Irazoqui M, Rodriguez-Pinon M, KindahiH, Forsberg M. Endometrial mRNA expression of estrogen receptors and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) throughout the bovine oestrous cycle. Anim Reprod Sci 2001; 68: 45–56.

Tibbetts T A, Conneely O M, OʼMalley B W. Progesterone via its receptors antagonizes the proinflamatory activity of estrogen in the mouse uterus. Biol Reprod 1999; 60: 1158–65.

Souza A H, Ayres H, Ferreira R M, Wilt-bank M C. A new pre synchronization system (Double-ovsync) increases fertility at first post-partum timed AI in lactating dairy cows. Theri-ogenology 2008; 70: 208–15.

Herlihy M M, Giordano J O, Souza A H, Ayres H, Ferreira R M, Keskin A, Nascimento A B, Guenther J N, Gaska J M, Kacuba S J, Crowe M A, Butler S T, Wiltbank M C. Pre syn-chronization with double ovsync improves fer-tility at first postpartum artificial insemination in lactating dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 2012; 95: 7003–14.

Souza A H, Silva E P B, Cunha A P, Gumen A, Ayres H, Brusveen D J, Guenther J N, Wiltbank M C. Ultrasonographic evolution of endometrial thickness near timed A.I as a predictor of fertility in high producing dairy cows. Theriogenology 2011; 75: 722–33.

Baerwald A R, Pierson R A. Endometrial development in association with ovarian follicu-lar waves during the menstrual cycle. Ultra-sound Obstet Gynec 2004; 24:453–60.

Livak K J, Slimittgen T D. Analysis of relative gene expression data using real time quantative PCR and 2-ΔΔctmethod. A new mathematical method. Methods 2001; 25: 402–8.

Johnson M L, Redmer D H, Reynolds L P. Effect of ovarian steroids on uterine growth, morphology and cell proliferation in ovariecto-mized, steroid-treated ewes. Biol Reprod 1997; 57: 588–96.

Delisle M F, Villeneuve M, Boulvain M. Measurement of endometrial thickness with transvaginal ultrasonography: is it reproducible J Ultrasound Med 1998; 17: 781–4.

Sajjan S. Studies on the ultrasonographic characterization of endometrial thickness in estrus cycle of cows. M V Sci thesis, Univ BI-DAR India 2014.

Jimenez-Krassel F, Folger J K, Ireland J L H, Smith G W, Hou X, Davis J F, Longergan P, Evans A d, Ireland J J. Evidence that high variation in ovarian reserves of healthy young adult has a negative impact on the corpus lute-um and endometrium during oestrous cycles in cattle. Biol Reprod 2009; 80: 1272–81.

Xiao C W, Goff A K. Hormonal regula-tion of oestrogen and progesterone receptors in cultured bovine endometrial cells. J Reprod Fertil 1999; 115: 101–9.

Simpson R D, Chase J R C C, Spicer L J, Vernon, R K I, Hammond A C X, Rae D O. Effect of exogenous insulin on plasma and fol-licular insulin-like growth factors-1, growth factor binding protein activity, follicular estra-diol and progesterone and follicular growth in super ovulated Angus and Brahman cows. J Reprod Fertil 1994; 102: 483–2.

Ramoun A A, Osman K T, Darwish S A, Karen A M, Gamal M H. Effect of pretreatment with insulin on the response of buffaloes with inactive ovaries to gonadotropin releasing hor-mone against treatment in summer. Reprod Fer-til Dev 2007; 19: 351–5.

Suguna K, Mehorta S, Agarwal S K, Hoqueh M, Shanker U, Singh S K, Varshney V P. Effect of exogenous insulin administration on ovulation function, embryo/fetal develop-ment during pregnancy in goats. Anim Reprod Sci 2009; 111:202–13.

Cerri R L A, Chebel R C, Rivera F, Nar-ciso C D, Olivera R A, Amstalden M, Baez-Sandoval G M, Olivera L G, Tahatcher W W, Santos J E. Concentration of progesterone dur-ing the development of the ovulatory follicle: II. Ovarian and uterine responses. J Dairy Sci 2011; 94: 3352–65.

Bridges G A, Mussard M L, Burke C R, Day M L. Influence of the length of proestrous on fertility and endocrine function in female cattle. AnimReprodSci2010; 117:208.

Mussard M L, Burke C R, Behlke K J, Gasser C L, Day M L. Influence of premature induction of a luteinizing hormone surge with gonadotrophin releasing hormone on ovulation, Luteal function and fertility in cattle. J Anim Sci 2007; 85:937–3.

Sunderland S J, Crowe M A, Boland M P, Roche J F, Ireland J J. Selection, dominance and atresia of follicles during the oestrous cycle of heifers. Journal of Reprod Fertil 1994; 101:547–56.

Clark J H, Schrader W T, O’Malley B W. Mechanisms of steroid hormones action. In: Wilson J D, Foster DW(Eds.), Williams Text-book of Endocrinology, 8th Edition Saunders, Philadelphia pp 1992; 35–90.

Mann G E, Lamming G E, Robinson R S, Wathes D C. The regulation of interferon-production and uterine hormone receptors dur-ing early pregnancy. J Reprod Fertil 1999; 54: 317–28.

Spencer T E and Bazer F W. Temporal and spatial alterations in uterine estrogen recep-tor and progesterone receptor gene expression during the estrous cycle and early pregnancy in the ewe.Biology of Reproduction 1995; 53: 1527–43.

Shimizm T u s, Krebs S, Bauersachs H, Blum E, Wolf, Miyamoto A. Actions and inter-action of progesterone and estrogen on tran-scriptome profiles of the bovine endometrium. Physiol Genomics 2010; 42:290–00.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Our journal is indexed in:
Science Citation Index Expanded, Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition, Agris, Biomedicina Slovenica, CAB Abstracts, IVSI Urlich’s International Periodicals Directory
Gerbičeva 60, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia, T: +386 (0)1 47 79 100, F: +386 (0)1 28 32 243, E:
Published by