MYCOLOGICAL EXAMINATION OF FISH FEED STUFF WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO MYCOTOXIN PRODUCTION

Maha Kholife, Amgad Moawad, Amany Diab, Abeer El-keredy

Abstract


Mycotoxin contamination is considered as one of the most economic problems for livestock and feed industries. A total of thirty fish feedstuffs were collected for isolation and identification of fungi from fish farms in Kafr El Sheikh Governorate, Egypt. Five fungal genera were isolated from all examined feedstuffs. The most frequent isolated fungi was Aspergillus spp. (86.66%) followed by Penicillium spp. (23.33%), and Fusariam spp. (10%), Mucor spp. (6.66%) then Rhizopus spp. (3.33%). Aspergillus niger was the most prevailing genus (43.33%) followed by Aspergillus flavus ((30%), and Aspergillus fumigatus (6.66%), Aspergillus versicolor (3.33%) then Aspergillus terrus (3.33%). Aspergillus ochraceus was not found despite the presence of ochratoxin A (OTA) in low concentrations. Some mycotoxins were produced by more than one fungal species. Mycotoxins determination using HPLC revealed that 23.33% (7/30) of examined fish feed samples were positive, while 23 samples (76.66%) were mycotoxins free. In positive samples of mycotoxins, aflatoxins (AF) and OTA represented 23.33%, 10%, respectively. The estimated carcinogenic aflatoxins were AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 with a percentage of 23.33%, 13.34%, 6.67%, respectively, but AFG2 was not found. About 42.86% of the AFs producing fish feeds was higher than the permissible limit of aflatoxins (permissible limit is 20 ppb). The aflatoxigenic ability of the recovered nine A. flavus referred to 6 out of 9 (66.67%) were aflatoxin producers. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was carried out using the norsolonic acid reductase (nor), versicolorin A (ver-1) and O-methylsterigmatocystin (omtA) as aflatoxin producing genes of the isolated A. flavus strains. From the AF producing A. flavus, 50% was above the permissible limit. Therefore, the high contamination of fish feedstuffs with fungi, AFB1 andlow OTA in fish farms indicated potential risks to fish liveliness, derived products and the health of fish consumers. 

Key words: fish feedstuff; fungi; aflatoxins; ochratoxin A


Full Text:

PDF

References


Sharawy ZZ, Thiele R, Abbas EM, El-Magd MA, Hassaan MS, Peter C, Schmidt J, Saborowski R, Goda AMA-S, Slater MJ. Anti-oxidant response, body composition of whiteleg shrimp litopenaeus vannamei co-cultured with nile tilapia oreochromis niloticus in recirculating aquaculture. Aquaculture Environment Interac-tions 2017;9:257–268.

Enyidi U, Pirhonen J, Kettunen J, Vielma J. Effect of feed protein: lipid ratio on growth parameters of African catfish Clarias gariepinus after fish meal substitution in the diet with bambaranut (Voandzeia Subterranea) meal and soybean (Glycine max) meal. Fishes 2017; 2,1. doi: 10.3390/fishes2010001.

Greco MV, Pardo AG, Ludemann V, Martino PE, Pose GN. Mycoflora and natural incidence of selected mycotoxins in rabbit and chinchilla feeds. Sci World J 2012; 1–9.

Doerr JA, Campbell JML, Huff W E. In-teraction between dietary citrinin and Ochratox-in A in broiler chickens. Poult ScL 1982; 61: 1453.

Ariyo LA, Anthony HM, Lami HM. Sur-vey of Mycotoxigenic Fungi in Concentrated Poultry Feed in Niger State, Nigeria. JFR 2013; 2(2)128–35.

Pestka JJ. Deoxynivalenol toxicity, mechanisms and animal health risks. Anim Feed Sci Technol 2011; 137: 283–98

Fuchs R, Appelgren L and Hult K. Distri-bution of 14C-Ochratoxin A in the rainbow trout Salmogaidneri. Acta Pharmacol. Et Toxi-col J P 1986; 220–7.

El-Shaboury FA. Fungal flora of Brolus lake fish at Kafr El-Sheikh Province Alex J Vet Sci 1998; 14(3):17–28.

Danicke T , Goyarts S, Valenta H, Ueber-schar KH. Carry-over of Fusarium toxins (de-oxynivalenol and zearalenone) from naturally contaminated wheat to pigs. Food Addit Con-tam 2011; 25:389–420.

Abdelhady D, El-Abasy M, Abou-Asa S, Elbialy Z, Shukry M, Hussein A, Saleh A, El-Magd M. The ameliorative effect of aspergillus awamori on aflatoxin b1-induced hepatic dam-age in rabbits. World Mycotoxin Journal 2017;10:363–73.

Stewart D, Larson E. Aflatoxicosis in wildlife. Information Sheet 1582. Mississippi State Univ. Extension Service, Cooperating with U.S. Dept. of Agriculture 2002.

D’Mello JPF, MacDonald AMC. Myco-toxins. Anim Feed Sci Technol 1997; 69: 155–66.

Santacroce M P, Narracci M, Acquaviva M I, Cavallo R A, Zacchino V, Centoducati G. New Development in Aflatoxin Research: From Aquafeed to Marine Cells, Aflatoxins - Detec-tion, Measurement and Control, Dr Irineo Torres-Pacheco (Ed), ISBN 2011; 978-953-307-711–6.

Benford D, Boyle C, Dekant W, Fuchs E, Gaylor D W , Hard G et al. Ochratoxin A Safety Evaluation of Certain Mycotoxins in Food. WHO Food Additives Series 47. FAO Food and Nutrition Paper, WHO, Geneva, Swit-zerland, 2001; 74: 281–415.

Samson RA, Stalk A, Hadlok R. Revision on the subsection fasiculata of Penicillium and some allied species. Studies in Mycology 1976; 2: 75–.

Mushtaq M, Sultana B, Anwar F, Khan M, Ashrafuzzaman M. Occurrence of aflatoxins in selected processed foods from Pakistan. Int J Mol Sci 2012; 13(7): 8324–37.

Cruickshank R, Maimon D, Swain RHA. Medical microbiology 12thED Vol II Churchil Livingstone, 1975.

Raper KB, Fennel DI. The genus Asper-gillus.1st Ed. Williams and Wilkins Company, Baltimore, 1965.

Dalcero A, Magnolt C, Luna M, Ancast G, Reynoso MM, Chiacchiera S, Miazzo R, Palacio G. Mycoflora and naturally occurring mycotoxins in poultry feeds in Argentina. My-copathologia 1998;141 (1): 37–43.

Samson RAA. Complication of Aspergilli. Studies in Mycology 1979; 3: 198-202.

ARX JA, Pilzkunde J, Cramer inder A R Canter Verlag, Kommanditge sellschaft. FL – 9490 Vaduz 1967.

Raper KB, Thom CA. Manual of the pen-icillia, Williams and Wilkins Company, Balti-more, 1969.

Samson RA, Stalk A, Hadlok R. Revision on the subsection fasiculata of Penicillium and some allied species. Studies in Mycology 1976; 2: 75–8.

Zycha H, Siepman R, Linnemann G. Mu-corales Eine Besebreibung alter Gattunger und Arten diesser pilzgruppe ver lag Von. J Carmer 1969.

Association of Official Analytical Chem-ists "AOAC" Official Methods of the AOAC International Analysis. 13th Ed, Horwitz W, (Editor), Academic Press, Washington D.C, USA, 2000.

Toscani T, Moseriti A, Dossena A, Dal-lasta C, Semoncini N, Virgili R. Determination of ochratoxin A in dry-cured meat products. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2007; 855(2):242–8.

European Council “EC” Commission Regulation No. 401/2006 of

February 2006 laying down the methods of sampling and anal-ysis for the official control of the levels of my-cotoxins in foodstuffs. Official Journal of the European Union, L70 pp 2006;12–34.

Hera S, Fennel D, Hesseltine C. Aflatoxin producing strains of A. flavus detected by fluo-rescence of agar medium under U/V light. Appl Microbiol 1994;47 (6): 118–23.

Pestka J. Fungal toxins in raw and fer-mented meats. Fermented meat, A textbook, (Eds. G Campbell and P E Cook), Blakie Aca-demic and Professional Press, London, UK 1995.

Schuller PL, Van Egmond HP, Leonard Stoloff. Limits and regulation on mycotoxins. Proc Int Symp Mycotoxins PP 1983;111–29.

Criseo G, Bagnara A, Bisignano G. Dif-ferentiation of aflatoxin-producing and non-producing strain of Aspergillus flavus group. Lett Appl Microbiol 2001; 33(4):291–5.

Erami M, Hashemi S, Pourbakhsh S, Shahsavandi S, Mohammadi S, Shooshtari A, Jahanshiri Z. Application of PCR on detection of aflatoxinogenic fungi. ARI 2007; 62 (2): 95–100.

Davari E, Mohsenzadeh M , Mohammadi G , Shahsavandi S, Doloei R. Characterization of aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus and A. para-siticus strain isolates from animal feedstuffs in Northeastern Iran. Iran J Vet Res 2015; 16(2): 150–5.

Randhir S, Pradhan K. Forage evaluation. First Published, Printox, New Dalhi, Dhawan Printing works 1981.

Barbosa TS, Pereyra CM, Soleiro C, Dias EO, Oliveira A, Keller KM, Silva PP, Cavaglieri LR, Rosa CA. Mycobiota and mycotoxins pre-sent in finished fish feeds from farms in the Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Int Aquat Res 2013; 5: 3.

Cardoso F, F D C. Monitoramento de fungos toxigenicos e aflatoxinas em raçoes uti-lizadas na piscicultura em Teresina, Piauí, Bra-sil. Master’s Thesis, Universidade Federal do Piauí, Teresina, Brasil. 2011; In Portuguese.

Nunes EMCG, Maria M, Gomes-Pereira, Amilton P Raposo-Costa et al. Screening of aflatoxin B1 and mycobiota related to raw ma-terials and finished feed destined for fish. Lat Am J Aquat Res 2015;43(3): 595–600.

Embaby EM , Ayaat NM., Abd El-Galil MM , Allah Abdel-Hameid N, Gouda MM . Mycoflora and mycotoxin contaminated chick-en and fish feeds. Mid East J Appl Sci 2015; 5(4):1044–54.

Mohamed HMA, Emiesh WFA, Braeun-ing A, Hammad S. Detection of aflatoxin –producing fungi isolated from Nile Tilapia and fish feed. EXCLI J 2017;16:1308-–18.

Marijani E, Wainaina James M, Charo-Karisa H, Nzayisenga L, Munguti J, Gnonlonfin BJG, Kigadye M, Okoth S. Mycoflora and my-cotoxins in finished fish feed and feed ingredi-ents from smallholder farms in East Africa. Egy J Aquat Res 2017; 43 (2): 169–76.

Hashimoto EH, Santos MA, Ono EYS, Hayashi C, Bracarense APFRL, Hirooka EY. Bromatologia e contaminação com fumonisina e aflatoxina em rações utilizadas na piscicultura da região de Londrina, Estado do Paraná, Brasil. Seminario: Ciências Agrárias 2003; 24(1):123–32.

Greco M, Pardo A, Pose G. Mycotoxigen-ic fungi and natural co-occurrence of mycotox-ins in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) feeds. Toxins (Basel) 2015; 7(11):4595–609.

Hassan AA, Hassan AM, ElShafei MH, El Ahl RMH, Abd El-Dayem RH. Detection of aflatoxigenic moulds isolated from fish and their products and its public health significance. Mater Sci 2011; 9 (9): 106–14.

Mahfouz EM, Sherif HA. A Multiparame-ter investigation into adverse effects of aflatox-in on Oreochromis niloticus health status. J Basic Appl Zool 2015; 71:48–59.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.26873/SVR-769-2019

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


SLOVENIAN VETERINARY RESEARCH, Veterinary Faculty
Gerbičeva 60, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia, T: +386 (0)1 47 79 100, F: +386 (0)1 28 32 243, E: slovetres@vf.uni-lj.si
Published by computing.si