EXPRESSION AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF GHRELIN, OBESTATIN, AND LEPTIN IN DEFERENT DUCTS OF THE BULL AND RAM

Berna Güney Saruhan, Serkan Erdoğan, Uğur Topaloğlu, Mehmet Erdem Akbalık, Bayram Bayram, Muzaffer Aydın Ketani, Hakan Sağsöz

Abstract


It is known that ghrelin, obestatin and leptin are involved in many biological processes such as appetite-energy regulation, growth hormone release and cell proliferation. In addition to these biological activities of in human and rodents, direct effects of these hormones on reproductive functions and regulation of smooth muscle contractions have gained importance in recent years. In mammals, gonadal functions are regulated by using a complex network of autocrine, paracrine and endocrine signals. The signals involved in the control of energy balance regulate reproductive functions by acting on different hypothalamic pituitary-gonadal axis. The underlying molecular mechanism of gonad is poorly understood and appears to be controlled on genetic, environmental, and hormonal factors. Ghrelin, obestatin and leptin, three recently discovered hormones, are especially coexpressed in endocrine cells. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the immunohistochemical expression and potential biological activity of bull and ram deferent ducts (DD) in relation to the tissue concentration of ghrelin, obestatin and leptin. Ghrelin, obestatin and leptin expression observed in the DD sections were restricted to the cytoplasm of the epithelial and muscle cells. Both ghrelin and leptin expressions were found in smooth muscle cells in muscular layer of DD and smooth muscle cells of blood vessels, and obestatin expression was found in the basal epithelial cells of the luminal epithelium. In conclusion, ghrelin, obestatin and leptin were expressed in varying concentrations in epithelial and muscle cells as well as blood vessels of the deferent ducts of both species. Given the multifunctional biological roles of these peptide hormones, we can suggest that these hormones function in the contraction and hypertrophy of smooth muscles, proliferation or apoptosis of epithelial and muscle cells in DD.

Key words: deferent ducts; ghrelin; leptin; obestatin; ruminant; physiological function

 

IZRAŽANJE IN BIOLOŠKA AKTIVNOST GRELINA, OBESTATINA IN LEPTINA V SEMENOVODU PRI BIKU IN OVNU

Povzetek: Znano je, da so grelin, obestatin in leptin vključeni v številne biološke procese, kot so uravnavanje apetita, sproščanje rastnega hormona in spodbujanje delitev celic. Poleg omenjenih bioloških učinkov pri ljudeh in glodavcih so v zadnjih letih postali znani tudi njihovi neposredni učinki na delovanje spolnega sistema in uravnavanje kontrakcije gladkih mišic. Pri sesalcih je delovanje spolnih žlez uravnano z zapleteno mrežo avtokrinih, parakrinih in endokrinih sporočil. Sporočila, ki sodelujejo pri nadzoru energetskega ravnotežja v telesu pogosto vplivajo tudi na delovanje spolnega sistema z vplivom na hipotalamusno-hipofizno-spolno os. Osnovni molekularni mehanizem delovanja spolnih žlez je slabo raziskan, na njegovo delovanje pa vplivajo genetski, okoljski in hormonski dejavniki. Grelin, obestatin in leptin so trije hormoni, ki v telesu sodelujejo pri urejanju in ohranjanju energetskega ravnotežja. Namen raziskave je bil preučiti imunohistokemično izražanje in potencialno biološko aktivnost grelina, obestatina in leptina v semenovodu bikov in ovnov. Grelin, obestatin in leptin so izraženi v semenovodu in so bili omejeni na citoplazmo epitelijskih in mišičnih celic. Grelin in leptin sta bila izražena v gladkih mišičnih celicah mišične plasti semenovoda in gladkih mišičnih celicah krvnih žil. Obestatin je bil izražen v bazalnih epitelijskih celicah svetline semenovoda. Grelin, obestatin in leptin so torej izraženi v različnih koncentracijah v epitelnih in mišičnih celicah ter krvnih žilah v semenovodu pri biku in ovnu. Glede na raznolike biološke vloge teh peptidnih hormonov lahko predvidevamo, da ti hormoni morda sodelujejo pri krčenju in hipertrofiji gladkih mišic ter pri množenju ali apoptozi epitelijskih in mišičnih celic v semenovodu.

Ključne besede: semenovod; grelin; leptin; obestatin; bik; oven; fiziološka funkcija


Full Text:

PDF

References


(1) Fernández-Fernández R, Tena-Sempere M, Aguilar E, Pinilla L. Ghrelin effects on gonadotropin secretion in male and female rats. Neurosci Lett 2004; 362: 103–7.

(2) Fernández-Fernández R, Tena-Sempere M, Navarro VM, et al. Effects of ghrelin upon gonadotropin-releasing hormone and gonadotropin secretion in adult female rats: in vivo and in vitro studies. Neuroendocrinology 2005; 82: 245–55.

(3) Yang J, Brown MS, Liang G, Grishin NV, Goldstein JL. Identification of the acyltransferase that octanoylates ghrelin, an appetite-stimulating peptide hormone. Cell 2008; 132: 387–96.

(4) Tanaka K, Minoura H, Isobe T, et al. Ghrelin is involved in the decidualization of human endometrial stromal cells. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2003; 88: 2335–40.

(5) Sönmez MF, Ozan E. Determination of ghrelin immunoreactivity in the rat stomach after fasting and refeeding. Acta Histochem 2007; 109: 193–9.

(6) Unsal F, Sönmez MF. The effects of ovariectomy on ghrelin expression in the rat uterus. Adv Clin Exp Med 2014; 23: 363–70.

(7) Jeffery PL, Herington AC, Chopin LK. The potential autocrine/paracrine roles of ghrelin and its receptor in hormone-dependent cancer. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev 2003; 14: 113–22.

(8) Muccioli G, Lorenzi T, Lorenzi M, et al. Beyond the metabolic role of ghrelin: a new player in the regulation of reproductive function. Peptides 2011; 32: 2514–21.

(9) Tena-Sempere M. Ghrelin, the gonadal axis and the onset of puberty. Endocr Dev 2013; 25: 69–82.

(10) Moshtaghi-Kashanian GR, Razavi F. Ghrelin and leptin levels in relation to puberty and reproductive function in patients with betathalassemia. Hormones (Athens) 2009; 8: 207–13.

(11) Nogueiras R, Pfluger P, Tovar S, et al. Effects of obestatin on energy balance and growth hormone secretion in rodents. Endocrinology 2007; 148: 21–6.

(12) Caminos J, Tena-Sempere M, Gaytan F, et al. Expression of ghrelin in the cyclic and pregnant rat ovary. Endocrinology 2003; 144: 1594–602.

(13) Lin Y, Li Q. The regulation of development and lactation of the mammary gland by leptin. J Am Sci 2005; 1(1): 63–7.

(14) Afsar T, Jahan S, Razak S, et al. Obestatin modulates ghrelin’s effects on the basal and stimulated testosterone secretion by the testis of rat: an in vitro study. Physiol Res 2017; 66: 93–8.

(15) Mahmud MA, Onu J, Shehu SA, Umaru A, Danmaigoro A, Atabo MS. Morphological studies on epididymis and vas deferens of one – humped camel bull (Camelus dromedarius), uda ram and red sokoto buck. Am J Biosci Bioengineer 2015; 3: 65–71.

(16) Nistal M, Santamaria L, Paniagua R. The ampulla of the ductus deferens in man: morphological and ultrastructural aspects. J Anat 1992; 180: 97–104.

(17) Saruhan BG, Topaloğlu U, Akbalik ME, Ketani MA, Sağsöz H. The first part of the ductus deferens in bull and ram: morphological, histological and histochemical aspects. Dicle Üniv Vet Fak Derg 2016; 1: 35–41.

(18) Moretti E, Vindigni C, Tripodi S, et al. Immunolocalisation of ghrelin and obestatin in human testis seminal vesicles, prostate and spermatozoa. Andrologia 2014; 46: 979–85.

(19) Rago V, Aquila S, Guido C, Carpino A. Leptin and its receptor are expressed in the testis and in the epididymis of young and adult pigs. Anat Rec (Hoboken) 2009; 292: 736–45.

(20) El-Eshmawy MM, Abdel Aal IA, El Hawary AK. Association of ghrelin and leptin with reproductive hormones in constitutional delay of growth and puberty. Reprod Biol Endocrinol 2010; 8: e153 (6 p.) https://rbej.biomedcentral. com/track/pdf/10.1186/1477-7827-8-153

(21) Dupont J, Maillard V, Coyral-Castel S, Rame C, Froment P. Ghrelin in female and male reproduction. Int J Pept 2010; 2010: e8 Art ID 158102 (8 p.) https://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpep/2010/158102/

(22) Tena-Sempere M, Barreiro ML. Leptin in male reproduction: the testis paradigm. Mol Cell Endocrinol 2002; 188: 9–13.

(23) Çatak Z, Aydin S, Sahin I, Kuloglu T, Aksoy A, Dagli AF. Regulatory neuropeptides (ghrelin, obestatin and nesfatin-1) levels in serum and reproductive tissues of female and male rats with fructose-induced metabolic syndrome. Neuropeptides 2014; 48: 167–77.

(24) Baran M, Eliaçık K. Etiology and pathogenesis of chronic constipation in childhood. İzmir Dr Behçet Uz ve Çocuk Hast Derg 2013; 3: 12–7.

(25) Georgiev T, Tolekova A, Kalfin R, Hadzhibozheva P. Short-term administration of melatonin or ghrelin on diabetic rats: effects on angiotensin II and vasopressin–induced uterine contractility. Physiol Res 2016; 66: 125–33.

(26) Qiu WC, Wang ZG, Lv R, et al. Ghrelin improves delayed gastrointestinal transit in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. World J Gastroenterol 2008; 14: 2572–7.

(27) Asakawa A, Inui A, Kaga T, Yuzuriha H, Nagata T, Ueno N. Ghrelin is an appetite stimulatory signal from stomach with structural resemblance to motilin. Gastroenterology 2001; 120: 337–44.

(28) Fakı Y. Obez tip 2 diabetes mellituslu hastalarda, serum aktive ghrelin hormonunun glisemik kontrol üzerine etkinliği. Istanbul : Ministry of Health Okmeydani Education Research Hospital, 2009: 41–4. Master thesis

(29) Şahin M. Diabetic autonomic neuropathy. KSU Tıp Fak Derg 2015; 10: 52–7.

(30) Alkafafy M, Attia H, Rashed R, Kandiel M. Some comparative immunohistochemical studies on the ductus deferens in the donkey (Equus asinus) and water buffalo bull (Bubalus bubalis). J Vet Anat 2010; 3: 55–69.

(31) Dun SL, Brailoiu GC, Brailoiu E, Yang J, Chang JK, Dun NJ. Distribution and biological activity of obestatin in the rat. J Endocrinol 2006; 191: 481–9.

(32) Israel D, Chua S, Jr. Leptin receptor modulation of adiposity and fertility. Trends Endocrinol Metab 2010; 21: 10–6.

(33) Hamrick MW, Herberg S, Arounleut P, et al. The adipokine leptin increases skeletal muscle mass and significantly alters skeletal muscle miRNA expression profile in aged mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010; 400: 379–83.

(34) Huang F, Xiong X, Wang H, You S, Zeng H. Leptin-induced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation via regulating cell cycle, activating ERK1/2 and NF-kappaB. Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai) 2010; 42: 325–31.

(35) Shyu KG, Chen SC, Wang BW, Cheng WP, Hung HF. Mechanism of the inhibitory effect of atorvastatin on leptin expression induced by angiotensin II in cultured human coronary artery smooth muscle cells. Clin Sci (Lond) 2012; 122: 33–42.

(36) Callaghan B, Hunne B, Hirayama H, et al. Sites of action of ghrelin receptor ligands in cardiovascular control. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2012; 303: 1011–21.

(37) Schroeter MR, Schneiderman J, Schumann B, et al. Expression of the leptin receptor in different types of vascular lesions. Histochem Cell Biol 2007; 128: 323–33.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.26873/SVR-464-2018

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


SLOVENIAN VETERINARY RESEARCH, Veterinary Faculty
Gerbičeva 60, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia, T: +386 (0)1 47 79 100, F: +386 (0)1 28 32 243, E: slovetres@vf.uni-lj.si
Published by computing.si