• Uğur Topaloğlu
  • Muzaffer Aydın Ketani
  • Mehmet Erdem Aakbalink
  • Hakan Sağsöz
  • Berna Güney Saruhan
  • Bayram Bayram



Abstract: In addition to its many functions, the placenta is characterized by the intensity and characteristics of its hormonal functions. It has been reported that the development and vascularization of the placenta with normal fetal growth is regulated by many factors such as growth factors, transcriptional factors, and homeobox proteins. This study was conducted to determine the distribution and possible physiological roles of HOXA11 and HLX in the uterus and placenta of pregnant cows. In  this study, 27 pregnant Holstein breed cow uteri and placentas obtained from private slaughterhouses were used as tissue  samples. In order to determine the pregnancy period of the obtained uterus, the ages of the fetuses were calculated according  to the age calculation formula. The uteri were classified under three different groups as the first (69-89 days), second (99-178  days), and third (190-269 days) periods of pregnancy so that there are 9 animals in each group. Tissue samples were then subjected to immunohistochemistry to demonstrate the presence of HOXA11 and HLX proteins. It was observed that HOXA11 and  HLX immunoreactions occurred prominently in the luminal and glandular epithelial cells of the uterus during pregnancy, and  the maternal epithelial cells of the placenta and UTC and TGC/BNCs. In addition, it was determined that HOXA11 immunoreaction also formed in some vascular endothelial cells. Immunohistochemical findings in this study suggested that Hoxa11 and  HLX may affect the proliferation and differentiation of cells in the uterus and placenta during pregnancy in cows, and that these  proteins may contribute to normal uterine physiology, placentation formation, and continuity of pregnancy in cows.

Key words: Hox proteins; HOXA11; HLX; placenta


Izvleček: Za posteljico so poleg številnih funkcij značilne intenzivnost in karakteristike njenih hormonskih funkcij. Poročali so,da razvoj in ožiljenost posteljice pri normalni rasti ploda uravnavajo številni dejavniki, kot so rastni dejavniki, transkripcijski djavniki in homeoboks proteini. Ta študija je bila izvedena z namenom določiti porazdelitev in morebitno fiziološko vlogo protnov HOXA11 in HLX v maternici in posteljici brejih krav. Za vzorce tkiv smo uporabili maternice in posteljice 27 krav pasem Holstein, pridobljenih v zasebnih klavnicah. Obdobje brejosti smo izračunali na podlagi starosti plodov po formuli. Maternice smoglede na obdobje brejosti uvrstili v tri skupine po 9 vzorcev: 1 (69-89 dni), 2 (99-178 dni) in 3 (190-269 dni). Prisotnost proteinoHOXA11 in HLX v vzorcih tkiv smo preverili z imunohistokemijo. Proteini HOXA11 in HLX so bili prisotni predvsem v luminalnihin žleznih epitelijskih celicah maternice ter v epitelijskih celicah maternalne posteljice, UTC in TGC/BNC. Prisotnost HOXA1je bila zaznavna tudi v nekaterih žilnih endotelijskih celicah. Rezultati imunohistokemije v tej študiji kažejo na morebiten vplivproteinov HOXA11 in HLX na proliferacijo in diferenciacijo celic v maternici in posteljici krav med brejostjo in na morebitno vlogoteh proteinov pri normalni fiziologiji maternice, nastanku posteljice in vztrajanju brejosti pri kravah.

Ključne besede: proteini Hox; HOXA11; HLX; posteljica

Author Biographies

Uğur Topaloğlu

Department of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Dicle University, Diyarbakır 21280, Turkey

Muzaffer Aydın Ketani

Department of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Dicle University, Diyarbakır 21280, Turkey

Mehmet Erdem Aakbalink

Department of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Dicle University, Diyarbakır 21280, Turkey

Hakan Sağsöz

Department of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Dicle University, Diyarbakır 21280, Turkey

Berna Güney Saruhan

Department of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Dicle University, Diyarbakır 21280, Turkey


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How to Cite

Topaloğlu, U., Ketani, M. A., Aakbalink, M. E., Sağsöz, H., Güney Saruhan, B., & Bayram, B. (2022). IMMUNOLOCALIZATION OF HOXA11 AND HLX PROTEINS IN COW PLACENTA DURING PREGNANCY. SLOVENIAN VETERINARY RESEARCH, 59(2).



Original Research Article