REGIONAL EPIDEMIOLOGY AND ASSOCIATED RISK FATORS OF PESTE DES PETITS RUMINANTS IN ASIA – A REVIEW

Authors

  • Munibullah Munibullah State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, China College of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine, Southwest Minzu University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China, Department of Clinical Studies, Faculty of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, PMAS-Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi, Pakistan
  • Yanmin Li College of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine, Southwest Minzu University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China
  • Kainat Munib Department of Sociology, Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad, Pakistan
  • Zhidong Zhang State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, China College of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine, Southwest Minzu University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.26873/SVR-1464-2022

Abstract

Abstract: Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) notifiable, economically important transboundary, highly contagious, and an acute viral disease of small ruminants. The disease is caused by the PPR virus (PPRV). PPRV belongs to the genus Morbillivirus of the family Paramyxoviridae. The recent epidemiological and molecular characterization of PPR virus isolates subdivides them into four genetically distinct lineages (I, II, III and IV). The disease is endemic across Asia, the Middle East and African regions and is considered a major obstacle to the development of sustainable agriculture across the developing world due to its huge burden on the economy and development of the affected countries and has recently been targeted by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the OIE for global eradication by 2030. PPR-endemic countries should join the regional force, and implement regional road maps for the progressive and successful control and elimination of PPRV. In this review, the regional epidemiology of PPR outbreaks and associated risk factors, including animal factors (age, species and sex), environmental factors (season, spatial distribution of disease in various locations) and trade associated factors with special reference to the PPR affected countries in South, Central and East Asia are comprehensively discussed.

Key words: epidemiology; PPR-virus; risk factors; control; eradication; Asia

REGIONALNA EPIDEMIOLOGIJA IN Z NJO POVEZANI DEJAVNIKI TVEGANJA ZA KUGO DROBNICE V AZIJI – PREGLED

Izvleček: Kuga drobnice (angl., Peste des petits ruminants, PPR) je gospodarsko pomembna, čezmejno nevarna, visoko nalezljiva, akutna virusna bolezen drobnice, ki jo je potrebno prijaviti Svetovni organizaciji za zdravje živali (OIE). Bolezen povzroča virus PPR (PPRV). PPRV spada v rod virusov Morbillivirus iz družine Paramyxoviridae. Nedavna epidemiološka in molekularna karakterizacija izolatov virusa PPRV deli izolate na štiri genetsko različne linije (I, II, III in IV). Bolezen je endemična v Aziji, na bližnjem vzhodu in v Afriki. Zaradi močnega bremena za gospodarstvo in razvoj prizadetih držav velja za glavno oviro pri razvoju trajnostnega kmetijstva v državah v razvoju. Organizacija Združenih narodov za prehrano in kmetijstvo (FAO) in OIE sta nedavno določili, da je bolezen potrebno do leta 2030 izkoreniniti po vsem svetu. Države z endemijo PPR bi se morale pridružiti regionalnim silam in izvajati regionalne načrte za postopen in uspešen nadzor in izkoreninjenje PPRV. V tem pregledu so izčrpno obravnavani regionalna epidemiologija izbruhov PPR in povezani dejavniki tveganja, vključno z dejavniki živali (starost, vrsta in spol), okolja (letni čas, prostorska razširjenost bolezni na različnih lokacijah) in trgovine, s posebnim poudarkom na državah s PPR v južni, osrednji in vzhodni Aziji.

Ključne besede: epidemiologija; virus PPR; dejavniki tveganja; nadzor; izkoreninjenje; Azija

References

- 1. Baron MD, Diop B, Njeumi F, Willett BJ, Bailey D. Future research to underpin successful peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) eradication. J Gen Virol 2017; 98(11): 2635–44.

- 2. Kumar N, Maherchandani S, Kashyap SK, et al. Peste des petits ruminants virus infection of small ruminants: a comprehensive review. Viruses 2014; 6: 2287–327.

- 3. OIE. Infection with Peste des petits ruminants. In: Terrestial animal health code. [online] Paris : Office International des Epizooties, 2016: chapter 14.7. https://www.woah.org/fileadmin/ Home/eng/Health_standards/tahc/current/ chapitre_ppr.pdf

- 4. Abu Elzein EME, Hassanien MM, Alfaleg AIA, Abd Elhadi MA, Housawi FMT. Isolation of PPR virus from goats in Saudi Arabia. Vet Rec 1990; 127: 309–10.

- 5. Lefevre PC, Diallo A, Schenkel F, Hussein S, Staak G. Serological evidence of Peste des petits ruminants in Jordan. Vet Rec 1991; 128: 110.

- 6. Nanda YP, Chatterjee A, Purohit AK, et al. The isolation of Peste des petits ruminants virus from northern India. Vet Microbiol 1996, 51(3/4): 207–16.

- 7. Sil BK, Rahman MM, Taimur MJFA, Sarker AJ. Observation of outbreaks of PPR in organized goat farms and its control strategy. In: Annual Conference of Bangladesh Society for Veterinary Education and Research. Dhaka : BARC, 1995.

- 8. Amjad, H, Muhammad QI, Forsyth AM, Barrett T, Rossiter PB. Peste des petits ruminants in goats. Pak Vet Rec 1996; 139: 118–9. 9. Barhoom SS, Hassan WA, Mohammed TAR. Peste des petits ruminants in sheep in Iraq. Iraq J Vet Sci 2000; 13: 381–5.

- 10. Abdollahpour GA, Najafi RJ, Sasani F, Sakhaie E. Clinical and paraclinical findings of a recent outbreak of Peste des petits ruminants in Iran. J Vet Med 2006; 53: 14-16. 11. Ozkul A, Akca Y, Alkan F, et al. Prevalence, distribution, and host range of Peste des petits ruminants virus, Turkey. Emerg Infect Dis 2002; 8: 708–12.

- 12. Toplu N. Characteristic and non-characteristic pathological findings in Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) of sheep in the Ege district of Turkey. J Comp Pathol 2004; 131: 135–41.

- 13. Anderson J, Sammin D. Peste des petits ruminants in the Thrace region of Turkey. EMPRES Transbound Anim Dis Bull 2005; 27: 12–5.

- 14. Yesilbag K, Yilmaz Z, Golcu E, Ozkul A. Peste des petits ruminants outbreak in western Turkey. Vet Rec 2005; 157: 260–1.

- 15. Lundervold M, Milner GEJ, O’Callaghan CJ, Hamblin C, Corteyn A, Macmillan A. A serological survey of ruminant livestock in Kazakhstan during post-soviet transitions in farming and disease control. Acta Vet Scand 2004; 45: 211–24.

- 16. Kwiatek O, Minet C, Grillet C, et al. Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) outbreak in Tajikistan. J Comp Pathol 2007; 136(2/3): 111–9.

- 17. Banyard AC, Parida S, Batten C, Oura C, Kwiatek O, Libeau G. Global distribution of Peste des petits ruminants virus and prospects for improved diagnosis and control. J Gen Virol 2010; 91: 2885–97.

- 18. Wang Z, Bao J, Wu X, et al. Peste des petits ruminants virus in Tibet, China. Emerg Infect Dis 2009; 15: 299–301.

- 19. Lefevre PC, Diallo A. Peste des petits ruminants. Rev Sci Tech Off Int Epiz 1990; 9: 951–65.

- 20. Munir M, Zohari S, Berg M. Molecular biology and pathogenesis of Peste des petits ruminants virus. Berlin : Springer, 2013: 69–104.

- 21. Dhar P, Sreenivasa BP, Barrett T, Singh RP, Bandyopadhyay SK. Recent epidemiology of peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV). Vet Microbiol 2002; 8(2): 53–159.

- 22. Dundon WG, Adombi C, Waqas A, et al. Full genome sequence of a peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) from Ghana. Virus Genes 2014; 49(3): 497–501.

- 23. Muniraju M, Mahapatra M, Ayelet G, et al. Financial impacts of foot‐and‐mouth disease at villgage and national levels in lao PDR. Trans Emerg Dis 2016; 63(5): 403–11.

- 24. Parida S, Muniraju M, Mahapatra M, Muthuchelvan D, Buczkowski H, Banyard AC. Peste des petits ruminants. Vet Microbiol 2015; 181: 90–106.

- 25. Diallo AC, Minet CL, Goff G, Berhe E, Albina G, Barrett LT. The threat of peste des petits ruminants: progress in vaccine development for disease control. Vaccine 2007; 25: 5591–7.

- 26. Jones BA, Rich KM, Mariner JC, et al. The economic impact of eradicating peste des petits ruminants: a benefit‐cost analysis. PLoS One 2016; 11(2): e0149982 doi: 10.1371/journal. pone.0149982

- 27. Herrero M, Grace D, Njuki J, et al. The roles of livestock in developing countries. Animal 2013; 7(suppl.1): 3–18.

- 28. Albina E, Kwiatek O, Minet C, Lancelot R, Almeida DRS, Libeau G. Peste des Petits Ruminants, the next eradicated animal disease? Vet Microbiol 2016; 165(1/2): 38–44.

- 29. OIE, FAO. Global strategy for the control and erradication of PPR. Paris : OIE; Rome : FAO, 2015 http://www.fao.org/3/a-i4460e.pdf

- 30. Abubakar M, Manzoor S, Ali Q. Evaluating the role of vaccine to combat peste des petits ruminants outbreaks in endemic disease situation. J Anim Sci Technol 2015; 57: art 2. doi: 10.1186/ s40781-014-0036-y

- 31. Singh B, Bardhan D, Verma M, Prasad S, Sinha D. Estimation of economic losses due to Peste de petits ruminants in small ruminants in India. Vet Worl 2014; 7(4): 194–9.

- 32. Samad MA, Yousuf MA, Siddiky MNA, et al. SAARC Regional training on molecular diagnosis and laboratory surveillance of PPR. Savar, Dhaka : Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute, 2019.

- 33. Gao S, Xu G, Zeng Z, et al. Transboundary spread of peste des petits ruminants virus in western China: a prediction model. PLoS One 2021; 16(9): e0257898. doi: 10.1371/journal. pone.0257898

- 34. Ahaduzzaman M. Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) in Africa and Asia: a systematic review and meta‐analysis of the prevalence in sheep and goats between 1969 and 2018. Vet Med Sci 2020; 6(4): 813–33.

- 35. Islam MR, Shamsuddin M, Rahman MA, Das PM, Dewan ML. An outbreak of peste des petits ruminants in Black Bengal goats in Mymensingh, Bangladesh. Bangl Vet 2001; 18: 14–9.

- 36. Chowdhury EH, Bhuiyan AR, Rahman MM, Siddique MS, Islam MR. Natural peste des petits ruminants virus infection in Black Bengal goats: virological pathological and immunohistochemical investigation. BMC Vet Res 2014; 10: e263. doi: 10.1186/s12917-014-0263-y

- 37. Rahman MA, Shadmin I, Noor M, Parvin R, Chowdhury EH, Islam MR. Peste des petits ruminants virus infection of goats in Bangladesh: pathological investigation, molecular detection and isolation of the virus. Bangl Vet 2011; 28(1): 1 –7.

- 38. Bhuiyan AR. Epidemiology and pathology of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) in Bangladesh and molecular characterization of the virus. Mymensingh : Bangladesh Agricultural University Department of Pathology, 2012. PhD thesis

- 39. Sarker S, Islam MH. Prevalence and Risk Factor Assessment of Peste des petits ruminants in goats in Rajshahi, Bangladesh. Vet World 2011; 4(12): 546–9.

- 40. Abubakar M, Jamal SM, Arshed MJ, Hussain M, Ali Q. (PPRV) infection: its association with species, seasonal variations and geography. Trop Anim Health Prod 2009; 41: 1197–202.

- 41. Government of India, Ministry of Agriculture, Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairying and Fisheries (DAHDF) (2003). Total number of livestock and poultry-2003-State-wise (provisional). Government of India, Ministry of Agriculture, DAHDF, New Delhi, India. www.dahd.nic.in/ relcensus.htm accessed on (20. Aug. 2009)

- 42. Bhadyopadhyay SK. The economic appraisal of a PPR control pro-gramme in India. In: 14th Annual Conference and National Seminar on Management of Viral Diseases with Emphasis on Global Trade and WTO Regime. Hebbal Bangalore : Indan Virological Society, 2002.

- 43. Sudarshan KJ, Rajasekhar M, Upadhye AS. Prevalence of peste des petits ruminant and rinderpest antibodies in small ruminants. Ind Vet J 1995; 72(12): 1246–50.

- 44. Singh RP, Saravanan P, Sreenivasa B, Singh RK, Bandyopadhyay SK. Prevalence and distribution of Peste des petits ruminants virus infection in small ruminants in India. Rev Sci Tech OIE 2004; 23(3): 807–19.

- 45. Dhand NK, Sharma CS, Sandhu KS, Sharma DR, Singh J. Out-breaks of Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) in Punjab. Ind J Anim Sci 2002; 72(10): 853–4.

- 46. Mahajan S, Agrawal R, Kumar M, Mohan A, Pande N. Risk of seroconversion to Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) and its association with species, sex, age and migration. Small Ruminant Res 2012; 104(1/3): 195–200.

- 47. Joshi VB, Nagal KB, Sharma M, Katoch RC, Batta MK, Sharma AK. Pestedes-petits ruminants (PPR) among gaddi sheep and goats in Himachal Pardesh. Ind J Anim Sci 1996; 66(11): 1126–7.

- 48. Singh VP, Chum VK, Mondhe KS. Peste des petits ruminants: an outbreak in sheep in Rajasthan. Ind Vet J 1996; 73: 466–7. 49. Khan HA, Siddique M, Arshad MJ, Khan QM, Rahman SU. Seroprevalance of Peste des petitis ruminants (PPR) virus in sheep and goat in Punjab province of Pakistan. Pak Vet J 2007; 27: 109–12.

- 50. Muthuchelvan D, De A, Debnath B, et al. Molecular characterization of Peste-des-petits ruminant’s virus (PPRV) isolated from an outbreak in the Indo-Bangladesh border of Tripura state of North-East India. Vet Microbiol 2014; 174(3/4): 591–5.

- 51. Jha VK, Singh DB, Thakuri KC, Gautam SP. Peste des petits ruminants: epidemiological status and control approaches adopted in Nepal. In: Gurung TB, Joshi BR, Singh UM, et al., eds. Proceedings of the National Workshop on Research and Development Strategies for Goat Enterprises in Nepal. Kathmandu, Nepal, 2013: 73. https:// www.researchgate.net/publication/ 257143203_ Proceedings_of_the_National_Workshop_on_Research_and_Development_Strategies_for_Goat_Enterprises_in_Nepal (9. Nov. 2017)

- 52. DoAH. Annual Epidem Biological Bulletin. Tripureshwor, Kathmandu: Veterinary Epidemiological Centre, Directorate of Animal Health, 2015.

- 53. Acharya N, Poudel SP, Acharya KP. Crosssectional sero-prevalence study of Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) in goats of Syangja and Kaski districts of Nepal. VirusDiseases 2018; 29(2): 173–9.

- 54. Abubakar M, Irfan M, Manzoor S. Peste des petits ruminants in Pakistan: past, present and future perspectives. J Anim Sci Technol 2015; 57(1): e32. doi: 10.1186/s40781-015-0066-0

- 55. Ali Q. National Policy for Control of Peste des Petits Ruminants in Pakistan. Islamabad: GCP/ PAK/ 088-EC, FAO, 2004.

- 56. Zahur AB, Ullah A, Hussain M, Irshad H, Hameed A, Jahangir M. Sero-epidemiology of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) in Pakistan. Prev Vet Med 2011; 102: 87–92.

- 57. FAO. Recognizing Peste des petitis ruminants: a field manual. FAO Animal Health Manual No. 5. Rome : FAO UN 1999: 1–27.

- 58. Abubakar M, Ashiq S, Hussain Z, Hussain M, Saleha SH, Arshed MJ. Comparison of antigen detection methods of peste des petits ruminants virus in clinical samples of small ruminants. Bulg J Vet Med 2011; 14(2): 103–8.

- 59. Khan HA, Siddique M, Abubakar M, Javed MA, Hussain M. Prevalence and distribution of peste des petits ruminant’s virus infection in small ruminants. Small Ruminant Res 2008; 79: 152–7.

- 60. Abubakar M, Arshed MJ, Hussain M, Ali Q. Evidence of Peste des petits ruminants in serology of sheep and goats from Sindh, Pakistan. Transbound Emerg Dis 2011; 58(2): 152–6.

- 61. Abubakar M, Arshed MJ, Zahur AB, Ali Q, Banyard AC. Natural infection with peste des petits ruminants virus: a pre and post vaccinal assessment following an outbreak scenario. Virus Res 2012; 167: 43–7.

- 62. Odo BI. Comparative study of some prevalent diseases of ecotype goats reared in southeastern Nigeria. Small Ruminant Res 2003; 50(1/2): 203–7.

- 63. Azizi N, Farid A. Peste des petits ruminants in Afghanistan: the role of veterinary para-professionals in successful implementation Kabul : Ministry of Agriculture, Irrigation, and Livestock. https://oiebulletin.com/?panorama ppr control and eradication programme in afghanistan Bull OIE 2010(2) doi: 10.20506/bull.2018.2.2877

- 64. Zhao H, Njeumi F, Parida S, Benfield CTO. Progress towards eradication of Peste des petits ruminants through vaccination. Vir 2021; 13(1): e 59. doi: 10.3390/v13010059.

- 65. Kock RA, Orynbayev MB, Sultankulova KT, et al. Detection and genetic characterization of lineage IV peste des petits ruminant virus in Kazakhstan. Trans Eemerg Dis 2015; 62(5): 470-9.

- 66. Pruvot M, Fine AE, Hollinger C, et al. Mongolian saiga and other wild ungulates, Mongolia, 2016–2017. Emerg Infect Dis 2020; 26(1): e51–62. doi: 10.3201/eid2601.181998.

- 67. Shatar M, Khanui B, Purevtseren D, Khishgee B, Loitsch A, Unger H. First genetic characterization of peste des petits ruminants virus from Mongolia. Arch Virol 2017; 162: 3157–60.

- 68. Ts U, Uuganbayar E, Odbileg R. Sero-surveillance of “Peste des Petits Ruminants” PPR in Mongolia and development of recommendation. Mong J Agric Sci 2017; 19: 22–6.

- 69. Lkhagvadorj D, Hauck M, Dulamsuren C, Tsogtbaatar J. Pastoral nomadism in the forest-steppe of the Mongolian Altai under a changing economy and a warming climate. J Arid Environ 2013; 88: 82–9.

- 70. Orynbayev MB, Mamadaliyev SM, Koshemetov ZK, Nurabayev SS. Peste des petits ruminants in the Republic of Tajikistan. In: Urgent problems of veterinary medicine and agricultural biotechnology. Materials of the International Science and Practice Conference. Pavlodar, 2005: 66– 71 (in Russian).

- 71. Orynbayev MB, Mamadaliyev SM, Khairullin BM, et al. Serological monitoring of PPR among animals in Central Asia. In: 3rd Science and Practice Conference “Problems of infectious pathology in the regions of Siberia, far east and extreme north”. Novosibirsk, 2006: 176–7. (in Russian).

- 72. Bao J, Wang Z, Li L, et al. Detection and genetic characterization of Peste des petits ruminants virus in free-living bharals (Pseudois nayaur) in Tibet, China. Res Vet Sci 2011; 90(2): 238–40.

- 73. Bao J, Wang Q, Zhang Y, Liu C, Li L, Wang Z. Complete genome sequence of a novel variant strain of Peste des petits ruminants virus, China/ XJYL/2013. Genome Announc 2014; 2(5): e00762– 14. doi: 10.1128/genomeA.00762-14 74. Xia J, Zheng XG, Adili GZ, Wei YR, Huang J. Sequence analysis of peste des petits ruminants virus from ibexes in Xinjiang, China. Genet Mol Res 2016; 15(2): gmr7783. doi: 10.4238/ gmr.15027783

- 75. Anees M, Shabbir MZ, Muhammad K, et al. Genetic analysis of peste des petits ruminants virus from Pakistan. BMC Vet Res 2013; 9: e60. doi: 10.1186/1746-6148-9-60

- 76. ProMedMail. Peste des petits ruminants-China (11): Sheep, goat, spread, OIE, request for information. ProMed Posts May 5, 2014. http://www.promedmail.org/promed-posts/ (archive no. 20140511.2465094).

- 77. Gao X, Liu T, Zheng K, Xiao J, Wang H. Spatio‐temporal analysis of peste des petits ruminants outbreaks in PR China (2013–2018): updates based on the newest data. Trans Emer Dis 2019; 66(5): 2163–70.

- 78. Shaila MS, Purashothaman V, Bhavsar D, Venugopal K, Venkatesan RA. Peste des petits ruminants of sheep in India. Vet Rec 1989; 125: 602.

- 79. Abubakar M, Rajput ZI, Arshed MJ, Sarwar G, Ali Q. Evidence of peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) infection in Sindh ibex (Capra aegagrus blythi) in Pakistan as confirmed by detection of antigen and antibody. Trop Anim Health Prod 2011; 43: 745–7.

- 80. Ismail TH, Yamanaka MK, Saliki JK, Elkhoy A, Mebus C, Yilma T. Cloning and expression of the nucleoprotein of PPR virus in baculovirus for use in serological diagnosis. Virology 1995; 208: 776–8.

- 81. Furley CW, Taylor WP, Obi TU. An outbreak of Peste des petits ruminants in a zoological collection. Vet Rec 1987; 121: 443–7.

- 82. Abu Elzein EME, Housawi FMT, Bashareek Y, Gameel AA, Al-Afaleq AI, Anderson ECEC. Severe PPR infection in Gazelles kept under semi-free range conditions in Saudi Arabia. J Vet Microbiol B 2004; 51(2): 68–71.

- 83. Office International des Epizooties (OIE). OIE Manual of Standards for Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines. List A and B Diseases of Mammals, Birds and Bees. Paris: Office International des Epizooties. 2000.

- 84. Durrani AZ, Kamal N, Mehmood N, Shakoori AR. Prevalence of peste des petits ruminants (KATA) in sheep and goats of Punjab. Pak J Zool 2010; 42: 211–6.

- 85. Jalees MM, Hussain I, Arshad M, Muhammad G, Khan QM, Mahmood MS. Occurrence of peste des petitis ruminants in five districts of Punjab, Pakistan. Pak Vet J 2013; 33(2): 165–9.

- 86. Kumar P, Kumar R, Sharma A, Tripathi BN. Pathology of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) in goats and sheep: spontaneous study. Ind J Vet Pathol 2002; 26: 15–8.

- 87. Abubakar M, Arshed MJ, Zahur AB, Ullah F, Ishfaq F, Ali Q. Post outbreak profile of Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) virus antibodies in relation with vaccination in recovered goats. Pak J Life Soc Sci 2011; 9(2): 169–71.

- 88. Munir M. Role of wild small ruminants in the epidemiology of peste des petits ruminants. Transboun Emerg Dis 2014; 61.5: 411–24.

- 89. Taylor WP, Ali Q. Recognizing PPR. In: A field manual of Pakistan. Government of Pakistan. Strengthening of Livestock Services Project, Federal Project management unit. EU/ GOP/ PAK/ RELEX/2001/0129. 2005.

- 90. Abubakar M, Jamal SM, Khan MA, Ali Q. Peste des petits ruminants outbreak in small ruminants of Northern areas of Pakistan. Res J Vet Sci 2008; 1(1): 56–61. 91. Obi TU, Ojo MO, Taylor WP, Rowe LW. Studies on the epidemiology of peste des petits ruminants in Southern Nigeria. Trop Vet 1983; 1(4): 209–17.

- 92. Balamurugan V, Hemadri D, Gajendragad MR, Singh RK, Rahman H. Diagnosis and control of peste des petits ruminants: a comprehensive review. VirusDiseases 2014; 25(1): 39–56.

- 93. Otte MJ, Rachel N, Anni McL. Transboundary animal diseases: assessment of socio-economic impacts and institutional responses.“ Rome, Italy : FAO, 2004: 119.

Downloads

Additional Files

Published

2022-06-30

How to Cite

Munibullah, M., Li, Y., Munib, K., & Zhang, Z. (2022). REGIONAL EPIDEMIOLOGY AND ASSOCIATED RISK FATORS OF PESTE DES PETITS RUMINANTS IN ASIA – A REVIEW. SLOVENIAN VETERINARY RESEARCH, 59(2). https://doi.org/10.26873/SVR-1464-2022

Issue

Section

Review Article