Fardos A.M. Hassan, Elshimaa M. Roushdy, Asmaa W. Zaglool, Mohammed A. Ali, Iman E. El-Araby


This study aimed to reconnoiter breed variations in productivity, traits of carcass, economic rate, and IGF-1 gene regulation for meat production among Pekin, Muscovy, and Mulard ducks. A 10-week trial was conducted, using 120 ducklings (2-week old) that were divided into three groups based on breed. Each breed was kept in a separate group, divided into four replicates of 10 birds each. Muscovy ducks exhibited superior body weight, weight gain, feed conversion ratio, dressing and breast percentage compared to the other breeds (P˂0.001). The highest percentage of crude protein was observed in the meat of Mulard ducks leg (23.17) and breast (50.55), and in Muscovy breast meat (51.04). Pekin ducks yielded a significantly higher (P˂0.001) leg and breast fat content (6.27, 6.40 respectively) than Muscovy (4.58, 4.26 respectively) or Mulard ducks (4.13, 3.88 respectively). Notably, Muscovy ducks in comparison to the other breeds yielded the highest gross margin ($1.12) and lowest budget to produce 1kg of live body weight ($2.08) (P= 0.004). Furthermore, hepatic IGF-1 and IGF1R expression was higher in the Muscovy breed than in the other breeds. These genes increase the growth and development of muscles. Therefore, the Muscovy ducks are generally superior in terms of performance, carcass traits, and economic values.

Key words: duck breeds; performance; carcass merits; costs; IGF-1; IGF-1R

Full Text:



(1) Adzitey F, Adzitey SP. Duck production: Has a potential to reduce poverty among rural households in Asian communities–A review. J.World's Poult. Res. 2011; 1: 7–10.

(2) Xu TS, Liu XL, Huang W, Hou SS. Estimates of genetic parameters for body weight and carcass composition in Pekin ducks. J. Anim Vet. Adv. 2011; 10: 23–28.

(3) Wu X, Yan MJ, Lian SY, Liu XT, Li A, et al. GH gene polymorphisms and expression associated with egg laying in Muscovy ducks (Cairinamoschata). Hereditas 2014; 151: 14–9.

(4) Baéza E, Salichon MR, Marche G, Wacrenier N, Dominguez B, Culioli J, et al. Effect of age and sex on the structural, chemical, technological characteristics of mule duck meat. Br. Poult. Sci. 2000; 41: 300–7.

(5) Wawro K, Bochno R, Wilkiewicz-Wawro E. Slaughter value of crossbred ducks (Muscovy × Pekin) slaughtered at a different age. NATSCI. 2001; 8:17–25.

(6) Mark McM, Richards P, Poch SM, McMurtry JP. Expression of insulin-like growth factor system genes in liver and brain tissue during embryonic and post-hatch deve-lopment of the turkey. CBP 2005; 141: 76–86.

(7) Mc Murtry JP, Francis GL, Upton Z. Insulin-like growth factors in poultry. Domest. Anim. Endocrinol.1997; 14: 199–229.

(8) Richards MP, Poch SM, McMurtry JP. Expression of insulin-like growth factor system genes in liver and brain tissue during embryonic and post-hatch development of the turkey. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A Mol. Integr. Physiol. 2005; 141: 76–86.

(9) National Research Council (NRC). Nutrient requirements of poultry, 9th revised edition. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, USA 1994; 42–4.

(10) AOAC. Official methods of analysis (18th ed).Association of Official Analytical Chemist. Arlington, VA, USA 2004; 931.

(11) Song CL, Liu HH, Kou J, Lv L, Li L, Wang WX and Wang JW. Expression profile of insulin-like growth factor system genes in mus-cle tissues during the postnatal development growth stage in ducks. Genet. Mol. Res. 2013; 12 (4): 4500–14.

(12) Yuan JS, Reed A, Chen F, Stewart CN, et al. Statistical analysis of real-time PCR data. BMC Bioinformatics 2006; 7: 85.

(13) Olukosi JO, Erhabor PO. Introduction to farm management: principles and appli-cations. Agitab Publishers Limited, Zaria, Nigeria 1988; 77–83.

(14) Szász S. Changes in feather deve-lopment and meat producing capacity of the Pekin, Mule and Muscovy ducks according to the age and sex. PhD thesis, Department of Poultry Breeding, Faculty of Animal Science, 2003; University of Kaposvár, Kaposvár, Hungary.

(15) Rashid MA, Kawsar MH, Rashid MA, Miah MY, Howlider MAR, et al. Fertility and hatchability of Pekin and Muscovy duck eggs and performance of their ducklings. Progress. agric. 2009; 20: 93–8.

(16) Galal A, Ali WAH, Ahmed AMH, AliKh AA, et al. Performance and carcass characteristics of Dumyati, Muscovy, Peking and Sudani duck breeds. Egyptian J. Anim. Prod.2011; 48: 191–202.

(17) Stęczny K, Kuźniacka J, Adamski M. Comparison of growth rate and body weight of ducks of different origins. Acta Sci.Pol., Zootechnica 2015; 14: 97–106.

(18) Bhuiyan MM, Khan MH, Khan MAH, Das BC, Lucky NS, Uddin MB, et al. A study on the comparative performance of different breeds of broiler ducks under farmer’s condition at Farming System Research and Development (FSRD) site, Sylhet, Bangladesh. Int. J. Poult. Sci. 2005; 4: 596–9.

(19) El-Soukkary FAH, Mohamed HMA, Dawood AAA, Abd-El Sayed SY, et al. Physicochemical, microbiological and lipid characteristics of duck meat. Minufiya J. Agric. Res. 2005; 30: 527–48.

(20) Wawro K, Wilkiewicz-Wawro E, Kleczek K, Brzozowski W, et al. Slaughter value and meat quality of Muscovy ducks, Pekin ducks and their crossbreeds, and evaluation of the heterosis effect. Arch. Anim. Breed. 2004; 47: 287–99.

(21) Isguzar E, Kocak C, Pingel H. Growth, carcass traits and meat quality of different local ducks and Turkish Pekins (short communi-cation). Arch. Anim. Breed. 2002; 45: 413–8.

(22) Abd El-Samee LD, El-Allawy HMH, Maghraby NA, et al. Comparative study on some productive traits of Muscovy and Sudani ducks in Egypt. Int. J. Poult. Sci. 2012; 11:


(23) Bons A, Timmler R, Jeroch H, et al. Changes in body composition and crude nutrient content of Pekin ducks during growth. In Proceedings of the First World’s Waterfowl Conference, 1-4 December 1999, Taichung, Taiwan, pp. 328–32.

(24) Zhou H, Mitchell AD, McMurtry JP, Ashwell CM, Lamont SJ, et al. Insulin-like growth factor-I Gene polymorphism associations with growth, body composition, skeleton integrity, and metabolic traits in chickens. Poult. Sci. 2005; 84: 212–9.

(25) Amills M, Jiménez N, Villalba D, Tor M, Molina E, Cubiló D, Marcos C, Francesch A, Sànchez A, Estany J, et al. Identification of three single nucleotide polymorphisms in the chicken insulin-like growth factor 1 and 2 genes and their associations with growth and feeding traits. Poult. Sci. 2003; 82: 1485–93.

(26) Lei M, Peng X, Zhou M, Luo C, Nie Q, Zhang X, et al. Polymorphisms of the IGF1R gene and their genetic effects on chicken early growth and carcass traits. BMC Genet. 2008; 9: 1–9.

(27) Shu J, Li H, ShanY, XuW, Chen W, Song C, Song W, et al. Expression profile of IGF-I-calcineurin-NFATc3-dependentpathway genes in skeletal muscle during early develop-ment between duck breeds differing in growth rates. Dev. Genes Evol. 2015; 225: 139–148.

(28) Gouda EM, Essawy GS. Polymorphism of insulin-like growth factor I gene among chicken breeds in Egypt. Z. Naturforsch. 2010; 65: 284–8.

(29) Solomon JKQ, Austin R, Cumberbatch RN, Gonsalves J, Seaforth E, et al. A compa-rison of live weight and carcass gain of Pekin, Kunshan and Muscovy ducks on a commercial ration. livestock res. rural dev. 2006; 18: 154.



  • There are currently no refbacks.