BIOCHEMICAL EFFECTS OF GINGER AND/OR GREEN TEA EXTRACTS IN HIGH FAT DIET- INDUCED OBESE RATS

Mohamed Hashem, Nasr A.M. Nasr El-Deen, Osman A.E. Ghareeb

Abstract


The current study was designed to clarify the sequel of administration of green tea and/ or extract of ginger on body weight, lipid profile, some hormones and some fertility variables in high fat diet (HFD) - induced obese rats. The results revealed that treatment of HFD obese rats with ginger extract decreased the elevated body weight (from 530+5.29 to 295+9.11), lee index (from 0.33±0.008 to 0.27±0.004), serum total cholesterol (from 25+2.57 to 187+2.79), triacylglycerol (TAG) (from 201+2.15 to154+1.82), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (from 187.8+3.36 to119.6+2.31), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) (from 40.21+0.12 to 30.8+0.13), leptin (from 7.74+0.05 to 5.66+0.09), luetinzing hormone (LH) (from 0.30+0.006 to 0.19+0.005) and follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) (from 0.74+0.128 to 0.52+0.012) levels, but significantly elevated the decreased high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (from 21.40+0.50 to 36.40+0.81), serum testosterone (from 0.84+0.02 to 1.32+0.14), sperm count (from 44.20+2.08 to 65.20+0.54), motility (from 64+1.18 to 75.60+0.81) and normality (from 53.80+1.42 to 67+1.51). Similar results were observed with green tea treatment with minor variations. So, the inclusive outcomes may suggest that extracts of ginger and/ or green tea have a significant hypolipidemic effect with body weight reduction in rats fed high fat diet. In addition, the extracts may be qualified for ameliorative the ruined fertility parameters.

Key words: grean tea; ginger; obesity; lipids; sperm count; leptin


Full Text:

PDF

References


(1) Haslam DW, James W P. Obesity. Lancet 2005; 366: 1197–209.

(2) Adams JP, Murphy PG. Obesity in anaesthesia and intensive care. Br J Anaesth 2000; 85: 91–108.

(3) Stumvoll M, Goldstein BJ, van Haeften TW. Type 2 diabetes: pathogenesis and treatment. Lancet 2008; 371: 2153–6.

(4) Hajer GR, Van Haeften TW, Visseren FL. Adipose tissue dysfunction in obesity, diabetes and vascular diseases. Eur Heart J 2008; 29: 2959–71.

(5) Boden G, Lebed B, Schatz M, Homko C, Lemieux S. Effects of acute changes of plasma free fatty acids on intramyocellular fat content and insulin resistance in healthy subjects. Diabetes 2001; 50: 1612–7.

(6) Lavie CJ, Milani RV, Ventura HO. Obesity and cardiovascular disease: risk factor, paradox and impact of weight loss. J Am Coll Cardiol 2009; 53: 1925–32.

(7) Visioli F. Nutritional support in the pharmacological treatment of metabolic syndrome. Eur J Pharmacol 2011; 668: 43–9.

(8) Poulain M, Doucet M, Major GC, Drapeau V, Sériès F, Boulet LP, Tremblay A, Maltais F. The effect of obesity on chronic respiratory diseases: pathophysiology and therapeutic strategies. CMAJ 2006; 174 (9): 1293–9.

(9) Bao B, Wang Z, Li Y, Kong D, Ali S. The complexities of obesity and diabetes with the development and progression of pancreatic cancer. Biochim Biophys Act 2011; 1815: 135–46.

(10) Xu Q, Anderson D, Lurie-Beck J. The relationship between abdominal obesity and depression in the general population: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Obes Res Clin Pract 2011; 5: 267–78.

(11) Bartley J, Jacobs A. Effects of drying on flavor compounds in Australian grown ginger (Zingiber officinale). J Sci Food Agric 2000; 80: 209–15.

(12) Evans WC. Trease and Evans' Pharmacognosy, 16th ed. Edinburgh London New York Philadelphia St Louis Sydney Toronto 2009; Pp. 289–440.

(13) Andallu B, Radhika B, Suryakantham V. Effect of aswagandha, ginger and mulberry on hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 2003; 58: 1–7.

(14) Shanmugam KR, Mallikarjuna K, Nishanth K, Kuo CH, Reddy K. Protective effect of dietary ginger on antioxidant enzymes and oxidative damage in experimental diabetic rat tissues. Food Chem 2011; 124: 1436–42.

(15) Kamal R, Aleem S. Clinical evaluation of the efficacy of a combination of Zanjabeel (Zingiber officinale), and amla (Emblica officinalis) in hyperlipidaemia. Indian J Trad Knowl 2009; 8 (3): 413–16.

(16) Li XH, Mc Grath KCY, Nammi S, Heather AK and Roufogalis BD. Attenuation of liver pro-inflammatory responses by Zingiber officinale via inhibition of NF-kappa B activation in high-fat diet-fed rats. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 2012; 110: 238–44.

(17) Ramudu SK, Korivi M, Kesireddy N, Lee LC, Cheng IS, Kuo CH, Kesireddy SR. Nephro-protective effects of a ginger extract on cytosolic and mitochondrial enzymes against streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic complications in rats. Chin J Physiol 2011; 54 (2): 79–6.

(18) Afzal Μ, Al-Hadidi D, Menon M, Pesek J, Dhami MSI. Ginger: an ethnomedical, chemical and pharmacological review. Drug Metabol Drug Interact 2001; 18: 159–90.

(19) Chacko M, Thambi PT, Kuttan R, Nishigaki I. Beneficial effects of green tea: a literature review. Chin Med 2010; 5: 13.

(20) Cabrera C, Artacho R, Giménez R. Beneficial effects of green tea a review. J Am Coll Nutr 2006; 25: 79–99.

(21) Tang J, Zheng JS, Fang L, Jin Y, Cai W, Li D. Tea consumption and mortality of all cancers, CVD and all causes: A meta-analysis of eighteen prospective cohort studies. Br J Nutr 2015; 114:

–11.

(22) Cooper R, Morré DJ, Morré DM. Medicinal benefits of green tea. J Altern Complement Med 2005; 11: 521-528.

(23) Larsson SC. Coffee, tea and cocoa and risk of stroke. Stroke 2014; 45: 309–14.

(24) Osfor M M, Kensarah O, Azzeh F, Elmadbouly MA, El-Qutry M. Biochemical changes in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in obese diabetic male albino rats. Int J Nutr and Food Sci 2013; 2 (2): 1–7.

(25) Hussain MA, Hassan R, Farouk S. Pre-pubertal induction of obesity impaired reproductive function in male rat at maturity. J Physiol Pharmacol Adv 2015; 5: 621–33.

(26) Novelli E, Diniz Y, Galhard, C, Ebaid G, Rodrigues H, Mani F, Fernandes A, Cicogna A, Novelli FJ. Anthropometrical parameters and markers of obesity in rats. Lab Anim 2007; 41:

–19.

(27) Aguh BL, Yahaya A, Saidu IA, Ayeku PO, Agba AA. Correlation of body weight and other morphometric measurements in albino rats (Rattus Norvegicus). Sci J Biol Sci 2013; 2: 39–44.

(28) Roeschlau P, Bernt E, Gruber W. Determination of cholesterol. Clin. Chem 1974; 12: 403.

(29) McGowan MW, Artiss JD, Strandbergh DR, Zak B. A peroxidase-coupled method for the colorimetric determination of serum triglycerides. Clin Chem 1983; 29 (3): 538–42.

(30) Young DS and Friedman RB. . Effects of Disease on Clinical Laboratory Tests, 4th ed. Clin Chem 2002.

(31) Friedewald WT, Levy RI, Fredrickson DS. Estimation of the concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma, without use of the preparative ultracentrifuge. Clin Chem 1972; 18 (6): 499–502.

(32) Considine RV, Sinha MK, Heiman ML, Kriauciunas A, Stephens TW, Nyce MR, Ohannesian, JP, Marco CC, Mckee LJ, Bauer TL, Caro JF. Serum immunoactive-leptin concentrati-ons in normal-weight and obese humans. N Engl J Med 1996; 334: 292–95.

(33) Pierce JG, Parson TF. Glycoprotein hormone: structure and function. Ann. Rev. Biochem 1981; 50: 465–95.

(34) Levine JE, Norman RL, Gliessman PM, Oyama TT, Bangsberg DR, Spies HG.In Vivo Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Release and Serum Luteinizing Hormone Measurements in Ovariectomized, Estrogen-Treated Rhesus Macaques. Endocrinology 1985; 117 (2): 711–21.

(35) Joshi UM, Shah HP, Sudhama SP. A sensitive and specific enzyme immunoassay for serum testosterone. Steroids 1979; 34 (1): 35–46.

(36) Bearden HJ, Fluquary J, Willard ST. Applied Animal Reproduction. 6th ed., Restore Publishing Co. Inc., 1980; Pp: 158–60.

(37) Amann RP. Use of animal models for detecting specific alterations in reproduction. Toxicological Sciences 1982; 2 (1): 13–26.

(38) Tamhane AC, Dunlop DD. Statistics and Data Analysis: From Elementary to Intermediate. 1st ed., Upper Saddle River, USA 2000.

(39) Mohamed GA, Ibrahim SRM, Elkhayat ES, Riham Salah El Dine RS. Natural anti-obesity agents. Bulletin of Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University 2014; 52: 269–84.

(40) Ahmad RS, Butt MS, Sultan MT, Mushtaq Z, Ahmad S, Dewanjee S, De Feo V, Zia-Ul-Haq M. Preventive role of green tea catechins from obesity and related disorders especially hyperchol-esterolemia and hyperglycemia. J Transl Med 2015; 13: 79

(41) Goldfein JA, Walsh BT, LaChaussée JL, Kissileff HR, Devlin MJ. Eating behavior in binge eating disorder. Int J Eat Disord 1993; 14 (4): 427–31.

(42) Shalaby MA, Saifan HY. Some pharmacological effects of cinnamon and ginger herbs in obese diabetic rats. J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2014; 3 (4): 144–49.

(43) Xu Y, Zhang M, Wu T, Dai S, Xu J, Zhou Z. The anti-obesity effect of green tea polysaccharides, polyphenols and caffeine in rats fed with a high-fat diet. Food Funct 2015; 6 (1): 297–304.

(44) Dulloo AG, Duret C, Rohrer D, Girardier NM, Fathi M, Chantre P, Vandermander J. Efficacy of a green tea extract rich in catechin polyphenols and caffeine in increasing 24-h energy. An expenditure and fat oxidation in humans. Am J of Clin Nutr 1999; 70: 1040–5.

(45) Padmaja TK, Naidu PB, Kumar GE, Ganapathy S, Balaji M. Antiobesity activity of Bauhinia purpurea extract: Effect on hormones and lipid profile in high calorie diet induced obese rats. Adv Biosci Biotechnol 2014; 5 (11): 861–73.

(46) Jyothi Y, Rao RM, Rabban SI. Anti-obesity activity of Taraxacum officinale in high fat diet induced obese rats. J Chem Pharm Res 2015; 7: 244–8.

(47) Mostafa UE. Effect of green tea and green tea rich with catechin on blood glucose levels, serum lipid profile and liver and kidney functions in diabetic rats. Jordan J Biol Sci 2014; 7: 7–12.

(48) Taha NM, Mandour AA, lebda MA. Anti-oxidative and cardio-protective effects of ethanolic extract of ginger on triton 1339 induced hyperlipidemia in rats. Int J Chem Res 2014; 6: 153–8.

(49) El-kirdasy A, Shousha S, Al-rohaimi AH, Arshad MF. Hematological and immunobio-chemical study of green tea and ginger extracts in experimentally induce diabetic rabbits. Acta Pol Pharm 2015; 72: 497–506.

(50) Fuhrman B, Roseblate M, Hayek T, Coleman R, Aviram M. Ginger extract consumption reduces plasma cholesterol, inhibits LDL oxidation and attenuates development of atherosclerosis in atherosclerotic, apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. J Nutr 2000; 130: 1124–31.

(51) Elshater AA, Salman MA, Moussa MA. Effect of ginger extract consumption on levels of blood glucose, lipid profile and kidney functions in alloxan induced-diabetic rats. Acad J biolog Sci 2009; 2: 153–62.

(52) Chisaka T, Matsuda H, Kubomura Y, Mochizuki M, Yamahara J, Fujimura H. The effect of crude drugs on experimental hyperchole-steremia: mode of action of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate in tea leaves. Chem Pharm Bull 1988; 36: 227–33.

(53) Sayama K, Lin S, Zheng G, Oguni I. Effects of green tea on growth, food utilization, and lipid metabolism in mice. In Vivo 2000; 14: 481–4.

(54) York DA, Thomas S, Greenway FL, Liu Z, Rood JC. Effect of an herbal extract Number Ten (NT) on body weight in rats. Chin Med 2007; 2: 1–9.

(55) Aggerholm AS, Thulstrup AM, Toft G, Ramlau-Hansen CH, Bonde JP. Is overweight a risk factor for reduced semen quality and altered serum sex hormone profile? Fertil Steril 2008; 90 (3): 619–26.

(56) Pauli EM, Legro RS, Demers LM, Kunselman AR, Dodson WC, Lee PA. Diminished paternity and gonadal function with increasing obesity in men. Fertil Steril 2008; 90 (2): 346–51

(57) Sallmen M, Sandler D, Hoppin J, Blair A, Baird D. Reduced fertility among overweight and obese men. Epidemiology 2006; 17: 115–23.

(58) El-Sweedy M, Abdel-Hamid N, El-Moselhy M. The role of a mixture of green tea, turmeric and chitosan in the treatment of obesity-related testicular disorders. J Appl Biomed 2007; 5: 131–8.

(59) Hafez DA. Effect of extracts of ginger roots and cinnamon bark on fertility of male diabetic rats. J Am Sci 2010; 6: 940–7.

(60) Hofny ER, Ali ME, Abdel-Hafez HZ, Kamal Eel-D, Mohamed EE, Abd El-Azeem HG, Mostafa T. Semen parameters and hormonal profile in obese fertile and infertile males. Fertil Steril 2010; 94 (2): 581–4.

(61) Ghafurniyan H, Azarnia M, Nabiuni M, Karimzadeh L. The effect of green tea extract on reproductive improvement in estradiol valeratein-duced polycystic ovary polycystic ovarian syndro-me in rat. Iran J Pharms Res 2015; 14: 1215–33.

(62) Fejes I, Koloszár S, Szöllosi J, Závaczki Z, Pál A. Is semen quality affected by male body fat distribution? Andrologia 2005; 37 (5): 155–9.

(63) Shalaby MA, El-Zorba HY, Kamel GM. Effect of alpha-tocopherol and simvastatin on male fertility in hypercholesterolemic rats. Pharmacol Res 2004; 50: 137–42.

(64) Bashandy AE. Effect of fixed oil of nigella sativa on male fertility in normal and hyperlipi-demic rats. Int J Pharmacol 2007; 3: 27–33.

(65) Zhang K, Lv Z, Jia X, Huang D. Melatonin prevents testicular damage in hyperlipidaemic mice. Andrologia 2012; 44: 230–6.

(66) Soussi A, Gaubin Y, Beau B, Murat JC, Soleilhavoup JP, Croute F, El Feki A. Stress proteins (Hsp72/73, Grp94) expression pattern in rat organs following metavanadate administration: Effect of green tea drinking. Food Chem Toxicol 2006; 44 (7): 1031–7.

(67) Zhang K, Lv Z, Jia X, Huang D. Melatonin prevents testicular damage in hyperlipidaemic mice. Andrologia 2012; 44: 230–6.

(68) Soussi A, Gaubin Y, Beau B, Murat JC, Soleilhavoup JP, Croute F, El Feki A. Stress proteins (Hsp72/73, Grp94) expression pattern in rat organs following metavanadate administration: Effect of green tea drinking. Food Chem. Toxicol 2006; 44: 1031–7.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.26873/SVR-651-2018

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.