Ahmed A. Hassan, Hamed M. Nossir, Khaled Z. Soliman, Esraa M. El-Skeikh, Mervat M.H. Konsowa


The present study was carried out on nine apparently healthy goats of both sexes, females were non-pregnant and non-lactating. Their weight and age ranged from 28-35 kg and 17 to 24 months, respectively. These goats were divided into three groups; 1) Three were subjected to frozen sagittal section technique, 2) Three underwent computed tomography followed by frozen cross section techniques, and 3) Three were used for laparoscopy. With the aid of these techniques, this study focused on liver and spleen to detect their position, shape and relation with other abdominal organs. Sagittal sectional anatomy was done using right paramedian, left paramedian and midline sagittal sections on the abdomen of goats. The frozen cross sections were compared with CT images at the same level. Laparoscopy was accomplished at three positions; dorsal recumbency, right flank and left flank laparoscopy. The obtained results were presented in plates and anatomical structures of clinical importance were identified and labelled to establish a comprehensive guide for specialists in anatomy, surgery, radiology and veterinary education.

Key words: frozen sections; CT; faparoscopy; hepar; lien; small ruminants

Full Text:



(1) Fulton LK, Clarke MS, Farris HE. The Goat as a Model for Biomedical Research and Teaching. ILAR J 1994; 36: 21–9.

(2) Liu G, Zhao L, Zhang W, Cui L, Liu W, Cao Y. Repair of goat tibial defects with bone ma-rrow stromal cells and beta-tricalcium phosphate. J Mater Sci Mater Med. 2008; 19: 2367–76.

(3) Fabiani M. Computed tomography and its uses in veterinary medicine (Proceedings). 2009; Available from: http: //veterinarycalendar.

(4) Henninger W, Frame EM, Willmann M, Simhofer H, Malleczek D, Kneissl SM, Mayrhofer E.. CT features of alveolitis and sinusitis in horses. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2003; 44: 269–76.

(5) Gielen I, Van Bree H. Computed tomography (CT) in small animals: Part 2. Clinical applications. Vlaams Diergeneeskd Tijdschr 2003; 72: 168–79.

(6) Rothuizen J. Laparoscopy in small animal medicine. Vet Q 1985; 7: 225–8.

(7) Monnet E, Twedt DC. Laparoscopy. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2003; 33: 1147–63.

(8) Franz S, Gentile A, Baumgartner W. Comparison of two ruminoscopy techniques in calves. Vet J 2006; 172: 308–14.

(9) Kassem MM, El-Gendy SA, Abdel-Wahed RE, El-Kammar M. Laparoscopic anatomy of caprine abdomen and laparoscopic liver biopsy. Res Vet Sci2011; 90: 9–15.

(10) Freeman LJ. Gastrointestinal Laparoscopy in Small Animals. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2009; 39: 903-24

(11) Shah RA, Bhat MH, Khan FA, Khajuria A, Yaqoob SH, Naykoo NA, Ganai NA. Normal laparoscopic anatomy of the caprine pelvic cavity. Vet Sci Dev 2015; 5.

(12) International Committee on, Veterinary Gross Anatomical Nomenclature. Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria. Fifth (Revised). World Association of Veterinary Anatomists (W.A.V.A.); 2012. Available from: http: //

(13) Braun U, Irmer M, Augsburger H, Müller U, Jud R, Ohlerth S. Computed tomography of the abdomen in Saanen goats: II. Liver, spleen, abomasum, and intestine. Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd. 2011. Braun U, Irmer M, Augsburger H, Müller U, Jud R, Ohlerth S. Computed tomography of the abdomen in Saanen goats: II. Liver, spleen, abomasum, and intestine. Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd. 2011; 153: 314–20

(14) Maiti SK, Dutta A, Ajith P, Kumar N, Sharma AK, Singh GR. Laparoscopy for direct examination of internal organs in small animals. J Appl Anim Res 2008; 33: 201–4.

(15) Kandeel AE, Omar MSA, Mekkawy NHM, El-Seddawy FD, Gomaa M. Anatomical and ultrasonographic study of the stomach and liver in sheep and goats. Iraqi J Vet Sci 2009; 23: 181–91.

(16) May NDS. The anatomy of the sheep: a dissection manual. Third Edition. University of Queensland Press; 1970.

(17) Dyce KM, Sack WO, Wensing CJG. Textbook of veterinary anatomy. Saunders. Elsevier; 2010.

(18) Nickel R, Schummer A, Seiferle E, Sack WO. The Viscera of the Domestic Mammals. New York, NY: Springer New York; 1979.

(19) Getty R., Sisson and Grossman’s The anatomy of the domestic animals. Fifth Edition. W.B. Saunders; 1975.

(20) Hathcock JT, Stickle RL. Principles and Concepts of Computed Tomography. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 1993; 23: 399–415.

(21) El-Shafaey E, Aoki T, Ishii M, Sasaki M, Yamada K. A descriptive study of the bovine stomach using computed tomography. Pak Vet J 2015; 35: 18–22.

(22) Sajjadian SM, Shojaei B, Zade BS. Computed Tomographic Anatomy of the Abdominal Cavity in the Jebeer (Gazella bennettii). Anat Sci J 2015; 12: 37–44.

(23) Alsafy MAM, El-Gendy SAA, El-Kammar MH, Ismaiel M. Contrast radiographic, Ultraso-nographic and computed tomographic imaging studies on the abdominal organs and fatty liver infiltration of zaraibi goat. J Med Sci 2013; 13: 316–26.

(24) Anderson DE, Gaughan EM, St-Jean G. Normal laparoscopic anatomy of the bovine abdomen. Am J Vet Res 1993; 54: 1170–6.

(25) Freeman LJ. Veterinary Endosurgery. First Ed., Mosby Co.; 1999.

(26) Babkine M, Desrochers A. Laparoscopic surgery in adult cattle. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 2005; 21: 251–79.

(27) Silva LCLC, Zoppa AL, Hendrickson DA. Equine Diagnostic Laparoscopy. J Equine Vet Sci 2008; 28: 247–54.

(28) Galuppo LD, Snyder JR, Pascoe JR, Stover SM, Morgan R. Laparoscopic anatomy of the abdomen in dorsally recumbent horses. Am J Vet Res 1996; 57: 923–31.

(29) Ragle CA. Advances in Equine Laparoscopy. John Wiley & Sons; 2012.

(30) Yarbrough TB, Snyder JR, Harmon FA. Laparoscopic Anatomy of the Llama Abdomen. Vet Surg1995; 24: 244–9.

(31) Richter KP. Laparoscopy in dogs and cats. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2001; 31: 707–27.

(32) Galuppo LD, Snyder JR, Pascoe JR. Laparoscopic anatomy of the equine abdomen. Am J Vet Res 1995; 56: 518–31.


  • There are currently no refbacks.