USE OF ETHNOVETERINARY MEDICINES BY THE PEOPLE LIVING NEAR PAK-AFGHAN BORDER REGION
Summary: Ethnoveterinary practices have recently gained importance due to their strong efficacy and fewer side effects on animals system as compared to conventional drugs. The present study was designed to document indigenous knowledge on ethnoveterinary medicines in an unexplored remote region of Pakistan situated near Pak-Afghan border. Interviews were conducted using semi-structured questionnaire. Data analysis was done using percentage statistics and descriptive statistical indices. Hangu region of Pakistan comprises 24 ethnoveterinary plants belong to 19 families. Solanaceae, Rhamnaceae, Alliaceae and Euphorbiaceae were found to be most widely used plant families (2 plants each) in the studied region. Leaves (13 plants) were found to be most frequent plant part used in ethnoveterinary recipes. Total 19 plants were found to be used against different ailments of cows followed by 12 plants against buffaloes. Most of plant (9 plants) remedies were prepared in the form of decoction. Majority of the recipes (71%) were given to the livestock orally while (21%) in topical manner. Gastrointestinal and wound infections were found most common in domestic animals and total 5 plants each were used against them. Informant consensus results also showed high degree of consensus for gastrointestinal (0.93) and wound healing (0.95) potential of plants. Withania somnifera ranked first with FL value (100%), Anagallis arvensis ranked second with FL value (93%) and Euphorbia heliscopia ranked third with FL value (92%). DMR results showed that Dalbergia sisso ranked first, Morus nigra and Melia azedarach ranked second and Zizyphus nummularia ranked third (Table 4). The present results also showed that these medicinal plants were more exploited for medicinal, fuelwood and agricultural purposes. Plants with high Fic and FL value should be subjected to further in-vitro phytochemical and pharmacological investigation and protection should be given to multipurpose plant species by providing modern fuel resources and placing restriction on overgrazing.
Key words: Traditional practices, Livestock ailments, Medicinal plants, Pakistan