EFFICACY OF AMOXICILLIN (ATCOMOX®) AND/OR ALLICIN ON PERFORMANCE, HAEMATOLOGICAL, BIOCHEMICAL, AND HISTOPATHOLOGICAL CHANGES IN Clostridium perfringens INFECTED CHICKENS

Mohamed Aboubakr, Ashraf Elkomy, Soad Belih, Mohamed Morad, Hassan Shaheen, Mohamed M Abdel-Daim

Abstract


The efficacy of amoxicillin and/or allicinin healthy and experimentally Clostridium perfringens-infected broiler chickens was investigated. The chicks were equally divided into six groups, and all medications were orally administered via drinking water for five consecutive days: Group 1: non-infected and non-treated; Group 2: infected and non-treated; Group 3: infected and amoxicillin-treated (20 mg/kg b.wt); Group 4: infected and allicin-treated (25 mg/kg b.wt); Group 5: infected and treated with amoxicillin (20 mg/kg b.wt) and allicin (25 mg/kg b.wt); Group 6: infected and treated with amoxicillin (10 mg/kg b.wt) and allicin (25 mg/kg b.wt). Growth performance,haematological andbiochemical parameters were recorded. Significant decreases in total protein, albumin, RBCs, Hb, andPCV and a considerable increase in WBCs, AST, ALT, ALP, creatinine, anduric acid in infected chickens were observed. Administration amoxicillin and/or allicin for treatment of Clostridium perfringens infection resulted in improvement in haematological and biochemical changes following infection. A dose of amoxicillin (10 mg) and allicin (25 mg)/kg bwt for treatment of Clostridium perfringens infection in broiler chickens is recommended due to great synergistic effect, reduced mortality, greater safety, and increased economic potential.

Key words: amoxicillin; allicin; efficacy; broilers; biochemical; hematological

 

VPLIV AMOXICILINA (ATCOMOX®) IN ALICINA NA PRIRAST, HEMATOLOŠKE, BIOKEMIJSKE IN HISTOPATOLOŠKE SPREMEMBE PRI PIŠČANCIH, OKUŽENIH S Clostridium perfringens
 
Povzetek: V študiji smo ugotavljali učinkovitost amoksicilina in/ali alicinina pri zdravih pitovnih piščancih in pitovnih piščancih poskusno okuženimih z bakterijo Clostridium perfringens. Piščanci so bili razdeljeni v šest skupin in so zdravila dobivali peroralno preko vode pet dni zapored. V prvi skupini so bili neokuženi in nezdravljeni piščanci, v drugi okuženi in nezdravljeni, v tretji okuženi in zdravljeni z amoksicilinom (20 mg/kg telesne mase), v četrti skupini okuženi in zdravljeni z alicinom (25 mg/kg telesne mase) v peti skupini okuženi in zdravljeni z amoksicilinom (20 mg/kg teže) in alicinom (25 mg/kg telesne mase) in v šesti skupini okuženi in zdravljeni z amoksicilinom (10 mg/kg teže) in alicinom (25 mg/kg telesne mase). Spremljali smo prirast piščancev ter njihove hematološke in biokemične parametre. Pri okuženih piščancih smo v krvi opazili znatno znižanje skupnih beljakovin, albuminov, RBC, Hb in PCV ter znatno povečanje WBC, AST, ALT, ALP, kreatinina in sečne kisline. Uporaba amoksicilina in/ali alicina za zdravljenje okužbe s Clostridium perfringens je povzročila izboljšanje hematoloških in biokemičnih sprememb po okužbi. Odmerek amoksicilina 10 mg/kg in alicina 25 mg/kg telesne mase za zdravljenje okužbe s Clostridium perfringens pri pitovnih piščancih brojlerjih se je izkazal kot najbolj učinkovit, verjetno zaradi sinergističnega učinka obeh zdravil, in je povzročil zmanjšanje smrtnosti pitovnih piščancev.
 
Ključne besede: amoksicilin; alicin; učinkovitost; brojlerji; biokemjski parametri; hematološki parametri

Full Text:

PDF

References


(1.) Collier C, Van der Klis J, Deplancke B, Anderson D, Gaskins H. Effects of tylosin on bacterial mucolysis, Clostridium perfringens colonization, and intestinal barrier function in a chick model of necrotic enteritis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2003; 47: 3311–7.

(2.) Kaldhusdal M, Schneitz C, Hofshagen M, Skjerve E. Reduced incidence of Clostridium perfringens-associated lesions and improved performance in broiler chickens treated with normal intestinal bacteria from adult fowl. Avian Dis 2001; 45: 149–56.

(3.) Brown T, Julian R, Saif Y, eds. Diseases of poultry. 11th ed. Ames : Iowa State Press ; Blackwell Publishing Company, 2003. THE AVTORJEV NI V TEJ KNJIGI, RAZEN SAIFA, KI JE UREDNIK !!!!

(4.) Gazdzinski P, Julian R. Necrotic enteritis in turkeys. Avian Dis 1992; 36: 792–8.

(5.) Brennan J, Moore G, Poe S, et al. Efficacy of in-feed tylosin phosphate for the treatment of necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens. Poult Sci 2001; 80: 1451–4.

(6.) Amin A, El-Ansary A, Issa Y. Colorimetric determination of amoxycillin in pure form and in pharmaceutical preparations. Talanta 1994; 41: 691–4.

(7.) Nagaralli B, Seetharamappa J, Melwanki M. Sensitive spectrophotometric methods for the determination of amoxycillin, ciprofloxacin and piroxicam in pure and pharmaceutical formulations. J Pharm Biomed Anal 2002; 29: 859–64.

(8.) Ross Z, O'Gara EA, Hill DJ, Sleightholme H, Maslin DJ. Antimicrobial properties of garlic oil against human enteric bacteria: evaluation of methodologies and comparisons with garlic oil sulfides and garlic powder. Appl Environ Microbiol 2001; 67: 475–80.

(9.) Alli J, Boboye B, Okonko I, Kolade A, Nwanze J. In-Vitro assessments of the effects of garlic (Allium sativum) extract on clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Adv Appl Sci Res 2011; 2: 25–36.

(10.) Durairaj S, Srinivasan S, Lakshmanaperumalsamy P. In vitro antibacterial activity and stability of garlic extract at different pH and temperature. E J Bio 2009; 5: 5–10.

(11.) Stanaćev V, Glamočić D, Miloscaron N, Puvača N, Stanaćev V, Plavscaron N. Effect of garlic (Allium sativum L.) in fattening chicks nutrition. Afr J Agric Res 2011; 6: 943–8.

(12.) Iji PA, Saki A, Tivey DR. Body and intestinal growth of broiler chicks on a commercial starter diet. 1.Intestinal weight and mucosal development. Br Poult Sci 2001; 42: 505–13.

(13.) Macpherson LJ, Geierstanger BH, Viswanath V, et al. The pungency of garlic: activation of TRPA1 and TRPV1 in response to allicin. Curr Biol 2005; 15: 929–34.

(14.) Block E, Dane AJ, Thomas S, Cody RB. Applications of direct analysis in realtime mass spectrometry (DART-MS) in Allium chemistry. 2-propenesulfenic and 2 propenesulfinic acids, diallyl trisulfane S-oxide, and other reactive sulphur compounds from crushed garlic and other Alliums. J Agric Food Chem 2010; 58: 4617–25.

(15.) Qureshi AA, Abuirmeileh N, Din ZZ, Elson CE, Burger WC. Inhibition of cholesterol and fatty acid biosynthesis in liver enzymes and chicken hepatocytes by polar fractions of garlic. Lipids 1983; 18: 343–8.

(16.) Ankri S, Mirelman D. Antimicrobial properties of allicin from garlic. Microbes Infect 1999; 1(2): 125–9.

(17.) Cho SJ, Rhee DK, Pyo S. Allicin, a major component of garlic, inhibits apoptosis of macrophage in a depleted nutritional state. Nutrition 2006; 22: 1177–84.

(18.) Marien M, Nauwynck H, Duchateau L, et al. Comparison of the efficacy of four antimicrobial treatment schemes against experimental Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale infection in turkey poults pre-infected with avian pneumovirus. Avian Pathol 2006; 35: 230–2.

(19.) Robyn J, Rasschaert G, Hermans D, Pasmans F, Heyndrickx M. Is allicin able to reduce Campylobacter jejuni colonization in broilers when added to drinking water?. Poult Sci 2013; 92: 1408–18.

(20.) Botlhoko TD. Performance of Clostridium perfringens-challenged broilers inoculated with effective microorganisms. Pretoria : Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences. University of Pretoria, 2009. Masters dissertation

(21.) Wanger D, Furrow R, Bradley B. Subchronic toxicity of growth promoters in broiler chickens. Vet Pathol 1983; 20: 353–9.

(22.) Hepler OE. Manual of clinical laboratory methods. Calif Med 1949; 70: 310–1.

(23.) Lucas AM, Jamroz C. Atlas of avian hematology. Agriculture monography, 25. Washington : United States Department of Agriculture, 1961.

(24.) Eilers RJ. Notification of final adoption of an international method and standard solution for hemoglobinometry specifications for preparation of standard solution. Am J Clin Pathol 1967; 47: 212–4.

(25.) Retiman S, Frankel S. Calorimetric method for the determination of blood, aminotransferase enzymatic activities. Am J Clin Pathol 1957; 28: 56–63.

(26.) Kind P, King E. Estimation of plasma phosphatase by determination of hydrolysed phenol with amino-antipyrine. J Clin Pathol 1954; 7: 322.

(27.) Weichselbaum T. An accurate and rapid method for the determination of proteins in small amounts of blood serum and plasma. Am J Clin Pathol 1946; 10: 40–9.

(28.) Doumas BT, Watson WA, Biggs HG. Albumin standards and the measurement of serum albumin with bromcresol green. Clin Chim Acta 1971; 31: 87–96.

(29.) Bartels H, Böhmer M, Heierli C. Serum creatinine determination without protein precipitation. Clin Chim Acta 1972; 37: 193–7.

(30.) Sampson EJ, Baird MA, Burtis C, Smith EM, Witte D, Bayse DD. A coupled-enzyme equilibrium method for measuring urea in serum: optimization and evaluation of the AACC study group on urea candidate reference method. Clin Chem 1980; 26: 816–26.

(31.) Bancroft JD, Layton C. The hematoxylin and eosin. In: Suvarna SK, Layton C, Bancroft JD, eds. Bancroft’s theory and practice of histological techniques. 7th ed. Philadelphia : Churchill Livingstone /Elsevier, 2013: 173–86.

(32.) Lovland A, Kaldhusdal M. Severely impaired production performance in broiler flocks with high incidence of Clostridium perfringens-associated hepatitis. Avian Pathol 2001; 30: 73–81.

(33.) Lovland A, Kaldhusdal M. Liver lesions seen at slaughter as an indicator of necrotic enteritis in broiler flocks. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 1999; 24: 345–51.

(34.) Watkins K, Shryock T, Dearth R, Saif Y. In-vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of Clostridium perfringens from commercial turkey and broiler chicken origin. Vet Microbiol 1997; 54: 195–200.

(35.) Lanckriet A, Timbermont L, De Gussem M, et al. The effect of commonly used anticoccidials and antibiotics in a subclinical necrotic enteritis model. Avian Pathol 2010; 39: 63–8.

(36.) Peinado M, Ruiz R, Echávarri A, Aranda-Olmedo I, Rubio L. Garlic derivative PTS-O modulates intestinal microbiota composition and improves digestibility in growing broiler chickens. Anim Feed Sci Technol 2013; 181: 87–92.

(37.) Jimoh A, Ibitoye E, Dabai Y, Garba S. In vivo antimicrobial potentials of garlic against Clostridium perfringens and its promotant effects on performance of broiler chickens. Pak J Biol Sci 2013; 16: 1978–84.

(38.) Coles E. Veterinary clinical pathology. 4th ed. Philadelphia : WB Saunders, 1986.

(39.) Oleforuh-Okoleh VU, Ndofor-Foleng HM, Olorunleke SO, Uguru JO. Evaluation of growth performance, haematological and serum biochemical response of broiler chickens to aqueous extract of ginger and garlic. J Agric Sci 2015; 7: 167–73.

(40.) Bryan C, John J, Ingrid A, Brend S, Robrecht F. Comparison of the efficacies of three fluoroquinolone, one of antimicrobial agents, given as continous or pulsed-water medication, against Escherichia coli infection in chickens. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1998; 42: 83–7.

(41.) Jackson R, McNeil B, Taylor C, Holl G, Ruff D, Gwebu E. Effect of aged garlic extract on caspase-3 activity, in vitro. Nutr Neurosci 2002; 5: 287–90.

(42.) Chen S, Shen X, Cheng S, et al. Evaluation of garlic cultivars for polyphenolic content and antioxidant properties. PLoS One 2013; 8: e79730. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0079730.

(43.) Harrison G, Harrison L. Clinical avian medicine and surgery. Philadelphia ; London : WB Saunders Company, 1986.

(44.) Hossain MA, Akanda MR, Mostofa M, Awal MA. Therapeutic competence of dried garlic powder (Allium sativum) on biochemical parameters in lead (Pb) exposed broiler chickens. J Adv Vet Anim Res 2014; 1: 189–95.

(45.) Gholamiandehkordi AR, Timbermont L, Lanckriet A, et al. Quantification of gut lesions in a subclinical necrotic enteritis model. Avian Pathol 2007; 36: 375–82.

(46.) Pedersen K, Bjerrum L, Heuer OE, Lo Fo Wong DM, Nauerby B. Reproducible infection model for Clostridium perfringens in broiler chickens. Avian Dis 2008; 52: 34–9.

(47.) Das B, Dutta G, Devriese L, Phykan A. Necrotic enteritis in chickens due to field isolates of Clostridium perfringens type A. Indian J Vet Pathol 1997; 21: 27–9.

(48.) Olkowski AA, Wojnarowicz C, Chirino-Trejo M, Drew MD. Responses of broiler chickens orally challenged with Clostridium perfringens isolated from field cases of necrotic enteritis. Res Vet Sci 2006; 81: 99–108.

(49.) Immerseel FV, Buck JD, Pasmans F, Huyghebaert G, Haesebrouck F, Ducatelle R. Clostridium perfringens in poultry: an emerging threat for animal and public health. Avian Pathol 2004; 33: 537–49.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.26873/SVR-867-2020

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


SLOVENIAN VETERINARY RESEARCH, Veterinary Faculty
Gerbičeva 60, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia, T: +386 (0)1 47 79 100, F: +386 (0)1 28 32 243, E: slovetres@vf.uni-lj.si
Published by computing.si