ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF SOME POSSIBLE CAUSATIVE AGENTS OF SWOLLEN HEAD SYNDROME (SHS) IN BROILER CHICKENS IN EGYPT

Nasif Abdelmoez, M Shawky, Heba Abdelhady, M Lebdah, Selim Salama

Abstract


The current study was designed to detect, isolate and identify the etiological agents of SHS in chicken flocks in Egypt. Clinical samples, including the trachea, lung and choanal cleft swabs, from different flocks, ages and localities were collected from non-vaccinated commercial broiler flocks with respiratory signs then transmitted directly to the laboratory for further examination. Avian metapneumovirus RNA (aMPV RNA) was extracted then amplified using one step RT-PCR using both subtype A and B (G gene) primers then differentiation occurred by real time PCR (qPCR). Swab samples from subcutaneous edema and exudates were directly cultured and the suspected bacterial colonies were biochemically identified then confirmed by PCR.  Four samples were positive and one doubtful for aMPV using RT-PCR confirmed by qPCR. Bacteria isolation revealed that out of 40 samples, 16 samples were positive for E.coli, 4 samples were positive for P. aeruginosa, 6 samples were positive for P. mirabilis, 4 were mixed E. coli and P. aeruginosa, 8 were mixed E. coli with P. mirabilis and 2 samples were mixed P. mirabilis and P. aeruginosa. Depending on these findings, we could prescribe a preliminary guide to decrease SHS outbreaks by primary control of bacterial complication.

Key words: Swollen Head Syndrome; PCR; bacterial complication


Full Text:

PDF

References


Picault I.P.; Giraud P.; Deouin P.; Guittet N.; Benjean H.; Lamande L.; Toquin D and Gueguen C. Isolation of turkey rhinotracheitis like virus from chickens with swollen head syndrome. 1987; Vet. Rec., 121: 135.

Abdel-Azeem A.A.S.; Franzo G.; Dalle Zotte A.; Drigo M.; Martini M. and Cecchinato M. First evidence of avian metapneumovirus subtype A infection in turkeys in Egypt. Trop Anim Health Prod., 2014; 46:1093–7.

Arafa A.; Mady W.; Hussein A.; Tamam S. and Madbouly H. Molecular Characterization of Vaccine-Derived Mutants of Avian Metap-neumoviruses Isolated from Turkeys in Egypt. Am. J. Virolo., 2015; 4 (1): 1.11.

Nakamura K.; Mase M.; Tanimura N.; Yamaguchi S. and Yuasa N. Attempts to repro-duce swollen head syndrome in specific patho-gen free chickens by inoculating with Esche-richia coli and/or turkey rhinotracheitis virus. Avian Pathol., 1998; 27: 21–7.

Morley A.J. and Thomson D.K. Swollen head syndrome in broiler chickens. Avian Dis., 1984; 28: 238–43

Kuhne P. Ways to control avian metap-neumovirus. International poultry production, 2009; 17 (3): 7–9.

Bayon-Auboyer M.H.; Jestin V.; Toquin D.; Cherbonnel M. and Eterradossi N. Compari-son of F-, G- and N-based RT-PCR protocols with conventional virological procedures for the detection and typing of turkey rhinotracheitis virus. Arch. Virol., 1999; 144: 1091–109.

Cecchinato M.; Lupini C.; Pogoreltseva O.S.; Listorti V.; Drigo A.M. and Catelli E. De-velopment of a real-time RT-PCR assay for the simultaneous identification, quantitation and differentiation of avian metapneumovirus sub-types A and B. Avian Pathol., 2013; 42 (3): 283–9.

Cruickshank R.; Duguid J.P.; Marmion B.P. and Swain R.H.A. Medical Microbiology. The Practice of Medical Microbiology. 12th Ed. Vol. II Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, Lon-don and New York.1975.

Ghanbarpour R.; Salehi M. and Oswald E. Virulence genotyping of E. coli isolates from avian cellulitis in relation to phylogeny. Comp. Clin. Pathol., 2010; 19:147–53.

Tonu NS, Sufian MA, Sarker S, Kamal MM, Rahman MH, and Hossain MM. Pathologi-cal study on colibacillosis in chickens and de-tection of E. coli by PCR. Bangl J Vet Med. 2011; 9: 17–25.

Khatun N.M.; Mahbub E.; Elahi A.T.M.; Ahmed S.; Parvej M.S.; Akhter S.; Ansari W.K. and Ali M.S. Frequency of drug resistant E. coli isolated from commercial chickens in Bangla-desh. International journal of Natural and Social Sciences, 2015; 2 (4):1–5.

Seifi S and Boroomand Z. The role of avian metapenumo-virus in respiratory complex disease circulating in broilers in Northern Iran. Trakia J. Sci., 2015; No 2, pp 175–9.

Homayounfar N.; Shoushtari H.; Char-khkar S. and Bozorgmehrifard M. Detection by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and molecular characterization of avian metap-neumovirus in Chicken flocks in Iran: WALIA J., 2015; 31 (S3): 170–4

Jirjis F.F.; Noll S.L.; Halvorson D.A.; Nagaraja K.V. and Shaw (D.P. 2002): Patho-genesis of avian pneumovirus infection in tur-keys. Vet. Pathol., 39: 300–10.

Nunoya T.; Tajima M.; Izuchi T.; Takahashi K.; Otaki Y.; Nagaswa Y. and Hako-gi E. Pathology of a broiler disease character-ized by swollen head. J. Vet. Med. Sci., 1991; 53: 347–9.

Jones R.C. and Rautenschlein S. Avian metapneumovirus. In: Swayne, D.E., John R. Glisson, Larry R. Mcdougald, J.R. Glisson, Lisa K. Nolan, Suarez, D.L. and Nair, V. (eds.) Dis-eases of poultry. 13th ed. Ames: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.2013.

Aly M. M.; El-Zaher A.A. and Amin A. Studies on swollen head syndrome in Egypt. 1. Serological survey and comparison between two ELISA kits for detection of antibody. Veteri-nary Medical Journal Giza, 1997; 45 (2): 251–8.

Gharaibeh S.M. and Algharaibeh G.R. Serological and molecular detection of avian pneumovirus in chickens with respiratory dis-ease in Jordan. Poult. Sci., 2007; 86: 1677-1681.

Hafez H.M. and Löehren U. Swollen head syndrome: clinical observations and sero-logical examinations in West Germany. Dtsch. Tierarztl. Wochenschr., 1990; 97: 322–4.

Al-Ankari A.S.; Al-Ramadan A.M. and El-Demerdash Risk factors associated with prevalence of swollen head syndrome (SHS) in broiler chickens in eastern province-Saudi Ara-bia. Int. J. Poult. Sci., 2004; 3 (10): 646–50.

McDougall J.S. and Cook J.K. Turkey rhinotracheitis: preliminary investigations. Vet. Rec., 1986; 118: 206–7.

Goodwin M.A. and Waltman W.D. Clini-cal and pathological findings in young Georgia broiler chickens with oculofacial respiratory disease (so-called swollen head). Avian Dis., 1994; 38: 376–8.

Tanaka M.; Takuma H.; Kokumai N.; Oi-shi E.O.B.; Hiramatsu K. and Shimizu Y. Turkey rhinotracheitis virus isolated from broiler chicken with swollen head syndrome in Japan. J. Vet. Med. Sci., 1995; 57: 939–41.

Georqiades G., Iordanidis P., Koumati M. Cases of S-H-S in broiler chickens in Greece. Avian dis. 2001; 45 (3): 745–50.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.26873/SVR-819-2019

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


SLOVENIAN VETERINARY RESEARCH, Veterinary Faculty
Gerbičeva 60, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia, T: +386 (0)1 47 79 100, F: +386 (0)1 28 32 243, E: slovetres@vf.uni-lj.si
Published by computing.si