THE ROLE OF L. METHIONINE, L. CARNITINE, CHOLINE AND/OR SILYMARIN IN HEPATOPROTECTION AGAINST PARACETAMOL INTOXICATION AND OXIDATIVE STRESS IN BROILERS

Mustafa Aziz, Abu Elnasr Zahra, Zaghloul Kheder, Hend Fikry

Abstract


Paracetamol (Acetaminophen) was used for long time in poultry as an antipyretic drug and as a growth stimulator. However, high doses of paracetamol cause unpleasant side effects such as hepatorenal toxicity as mirrored by depletion of glutathione reserve, increase lipid peroxidation and increase liver enzymes or even sudden death with lethal doses. Therefore, this study was designated to evaluate the ameliorative effect of L. methionine, L. carnitine, choline and/or silymarin on the hepatotoxic effect induced by high doses of paracetamol. The study was applied on 80 chicks (from 1 till 33 days old) in special cages divided into 8 groups each one contained 10 chicks. The 1st group was used as a control, while the next 2-5 groups were supplemented with L. methionine, L. carnitine, choline and silymarin, respectively with doses as recommended by NRC, the 5th group was supplemented with silymarin (1 g/kg diet), the 6th group was supplemented with a mixture of the 4 supplements, the 7th group (hepatic intoxicated group) was given paracetamol (650 mg/kg diet for 7 days), and the 8th  group was administrated paracetamol with a mixture of the 4 supplements. Serum samples were collected to determine levels of lipid profile [triglycerides (TG) and total cholesterol (TC)], liver damage enzymes [alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transferase (AST)], lipid peroxidation marker malondialdehyde (MDA), and activity of antioxidant enzymes [glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD)]. The obtained results revealed that there was a significant improvement in all measured serum biochemical parameters and final body weight gain in the combined group (4 supplements + paracetamol) as compared to the paracetamol group. These data conclude that supplementation of poultry diets with L. methionine, L. carnitine, choline and silymarin can improve the negative effect of paracetamol through increasing the body weight gain and antioxidant activity of glutathione and superoxide dismutase and decreasing malondialdehyde, liver enzymes, cholesterol and triglycerides.

Key words: L. methionine; choline; L. carnitine; silymarin; hepatoprotection; broilers


Full Text:

PDF

References


Savita Marmat, Taj N Qureshi and Rathore H. Lethal doses of acetaminophen (paraceta-mol)for young broiler chicks. Indian Journal of pharmaceutical science and research 2015; 23–6.

Joulideh Pour Amin Reza. Effects of Ac-etaminophen as toxic drug on the liver function in poultry. Journal of cancer prevention and current research 2016; 4(4):100–28.

Gadde U, Kim W, Oh S and Lillehoj H. Alternatives to antibiotics for maximizing growth performance and feed efficiency in poultry. Animal Health Research Review 2017;18(1):26–45.

Mehri U, Herbert U and Mercier A. Addi-tion of amino acids in poultry. Animal Health Research Review 2016; 12(1):23–35.

Saleh A A, Amber K, El-Magd M A, Atta M S, Mohammed A A, Ragab M M, Abd El-Kader H. Integrative effects of feeding Asper-gillus awamori and fructooligosaccharide on growth performance and digestibility in broilers: promotion muscle protein metabolism, Biomed Res Int 2014; 2014: 946859.

Hayat Z , Rehman A , Akram K , Farooq U and Saleem G. Evaluation of a natural methi-onine source on broiler growth performance. Journal of Science and Food Agriculture 2015; 95 (12):

–6

Conde-Aguilera J, Cholet J, Lessire M, Mercier Y, Tesseraud S, and van Milgenj. The level and source of free-methionine affect body composition and breast muscle traits in growing broilers. Poultry Science 2016; 95(10):2322–31.

Wen C, Jiang X , Ding L , Wang T and Zhou Y. Effects of dietary methionine on growth performance, meat quality and oxidative status of breast muscle in fast- and slow-growing broilers. Poultry Science 2017; 96(6):1707–14.

Albrecht A , Herbert U, Miskel D, Heine-mann C, Braun C, Dohlen S, Zeitz J, Eder K , Saremi B and Kreyenschmidt J . Effect of me-thionine supplementation in chicken feed on the quality and shelf life of fresh poultrymeat. Poultry Science 2017; 96(8):2853–61.

Siegert W, Ahmadi H, Helmbrecht A and Rodehutscord M. A quantitative study of the interactive effects of glycine and serine with threonine and choline on growth performance in broilers. Poultry Science 2015; 94(7):1557–68.

Saunderson C and Mackinlay J. Changes in body-weight, composition and hepatic en-zyme activities in response to dietary methio-nine, betaine and choline levels in growing chicks. British Journal Nutrition 1990; 63(2):339–49.

Rehman Z , Chand N and Khan R . The effect of vitamin E, L-carnitine, and ginger on production traits, immune response, and antiox-idant status in two broiler strains exposed to chronic heat stress. Environment Science Poul-try Research Institute 2017; 24(34):26851–7.

Leibetseder J. Effects of L-carnitine in poultry. Arch Tierernahr 1995; 48(1-2):97–108.

Xu Z , Wang M , Mao H , Zhan X and Hu C. Effects of L-carnitine on growth perfor-mance, carcass composition, and metabolism of lipids in male broilers. Poultry Science; 2003 82(3):408–13.

Yu Z, Wu F, Tian J, Guo X and An R. Protective effects of compound ammonium glycyrrhizin, L arginine , silymarin and glucuro-lactone against liver damage induced by ochra-toxin A in primary chicken hepatocytes. Mol Med Rep 2018; 18(3):2551–60.

Jahanian E, Mahdavi A , Asgary S and Jahanian R . Effects of dietary inclusion of si-lymarin on performance, intestinal morphology and ileal bacterial count in aflatoxin-challenged broiler chicks. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 2017; 101(5):e43–54.

El-Magd M A, Khamis A, Nasr Eldeen S K, Ibrahim W M, Salama A F. Trehalose en-hances the antitumor potential of methotrexate against mice bearing Ehrlich ascites carcinoma, Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy 2017; 92: 870–8.

Saleh A A, Amber K, El-Magd M A, Atta M S, Mohammed A A, Ragab M M, Abd El-Kader H. Integrative effects of feeding Asper-gillus awamori and fructooligosaccharide on growth performance and digestibility in broilers: promotion muscle protein metabolism, Biomed Res Int 2014; 2014: 946859.

Alzahrani F A, El-Magd M A, Abdelfat-tah-Hassan A, Saleh A A, Saadeldin I M, El-Shetry E S, Badawy A A, Alkarim S. Potential Effect of Exosomes Derived from Cancer Stem Cells and MSCs on Progression of DEN-Induced HCC in Rats, Stem Cells International 2018; 2018: 17

https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/8058979.

Elkeiy M, Khamis A, El-Gamal M, Abo Gazia M, Zalat Z, El-Magd M. Chitosan nano-particles from Artemia salina inhibit progression of hepatocellular carcinoma in vitro and in vi-vo, Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. doi: 10.1007/s11356-018-3339-6 2018.

Jahanian R and Khalifeh-Gholi M. Mar-ginal deficiencies of dietary arginine and methi-onine could suppress growth performance and immunological responses in broiler chickens 2018; 102(1):e11–20.

Jahanian R and Ashnagar M. Effects of dietary supplementation of choline and car-nitine on growth performance, meat oxidative stability and carcass composition of broiler chickens fed diets with different metabolisable energy levels. 2018; 59(4):470–6.

Khajali F and Khajali Z. L-Carnitine sup-plementation decreases lipid peroxidation and improves cardiopulmonary function in broiler chickens reared at high altitude .Acta Vet Hung 2014;62(4):489–99.

Tedesco D, Steidler S, Galletti S, Tameni M, Sonzogni O and Ravarotto L. Efficacy of silymarin-phospholipid complex in reducing the toxicity of aflatoxin B1 in broilerchicks. Poultry Science 2004; 83 (11):1839–43.

Selvan R, Saravanakumar M, Suresh S, Chandrasekeran C and Prashanth D. Evaluation of polyherbal formulation and synthetic choline chloride on choline deficiency model in broil-ers: implications on zootechnical parameters, serum biochemistry and liver histopathology. Asian-Australas Journal of Animal Science 2018; 31(11):1795–806.

Zhang S, Gilbert E , Saremi B and Wong E. Supplemental methionine sources have a neutral impact on oxidative status in broiler chickens. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 2018; 102(5):1274–83.

Jankowski J, Ognik K, Kubinska M, Czech A, Juskiewicz J and Zdunczyk Z. The effect of DL, L-isomers and DL-hydroxy ana-log administered at 2 levels as dietary sources of methionine on the metabolic and antioxidant parameters and growth performance of broilers. Poultry Science 2017; 96(9):3229–38.

Ruan T, Li L, Lyu Y, Luo Q, Wu B. Ef-fect of methionine deficiency on oxidative stress and apoptosis in the small intestine of broilers. Acta Vet Hung 2018; 66(1):52–65.

Wang Y, Ning D, Peng Y and Guo Y. Ef-fects of Dietary L-carnitine Supplementation on Growth Performance, Organ Weight, Biochemi-cal Parameters and Ascites Susceptibility in Broilers Reared Under Low-temperature Envi-ronment Asian-Australas Journal Animal Sci-ence 2013; 26(2):233–40.

Park I, Pasquetti T, Malheiros R , Ferket P and Kim S . Effects of supplemental L-methionine on growth performance and redox status of broilers compared with the use of DL-methionine. Poultry Science 2018; 97(1):102–9.

Mohammadi V, Ghazanfari S, Moham-madi-Sangcheshmeh A and Nazaran M. Com-parative effects of zinc-nano complexes, zinc-sulphate and zinc-methionine on performance in broiler chickens. British Poultry Science 2015; 56(4):486–93.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.26873/SVR-812-2019

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


SLOVENIAN VETERINARY RESEARCH, Veterinary Faculty
Gerbičeva 60, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia, T: +386 (0)1 47 79 100, F: +386 (0)1 28 32 243, E: slovetres@vf.uni-lj.si
Published by computing.si