• Attia Moselhy
  • Eman Mahdy



This study was conducted to elucidate the comparative anatomical features of the skull of rabbits and cats using CT scans. Adult healthy New Zealand rabbits and Domestic Baladi cats of both sexes, were prepared for X-ray and CT scan of the heads at different positions. The heads were also processed for bone preparation and were photographed at various views. Some measurements were taken to exhibit the main differences between the two animal species. There was a cranial pharyngeal canal in the basisphenoid bone of rabbit, which was absent in cat.  The retroarticular process situated caudal to the mandibular fossa in cat and absent in rabbit. The carotid foramen was large and situated only in rabbit ventromedial to the bulla tympanica. The supraorbital process of rabbit extended anteriorly and posteriorly forming rostral and caudal supraorbital fissures. The orbit was located laterally in rabbit rostrally in cat. The facial surface of the maxilla was perforated by several formina in rabbit. A large retroalveolar foramen was found only in the mandible of rabbit. The condyloid process of the mandible was large and present longitudinally in rabbit and transversally in cat. Also, the hyoid bones and the paranasal sinuses were compared at both animals. The hyoid bone located in the mandibular space in rabbit and caudal to this space in cat. The lingual process of the hyoid bone was absent in cat. The middle and great cornuae of the hyoid bone were absent in rabbit. The paranasal sinuses of rabbit were maxillary and ethmoidal sinuses. While in cat, there were frontal, sphenoidal and maxillary sinuses. The combination between the traditional gross morphology of the skulls, X-ray and scan aimed to clarify and confirm all the points of comparison between the two animal species used, which was not achieved by using only one method of them.

Key words: rabbit; cat; skull; computed tomography; anatomy


Nathan R. Biology of the rabbit. J of the American Association for Lab Anim Sci, 2006; 45: 8–24.

Pitakarnnop T, Buddhacha K, Euppayo T, Kriangwanich W, Nganvongpanit K. Feline (Fe-lis catus) skull and pelvic morphology and mor-phometry: gender-related difference. Anat His-tol Embryol. 2017; 46 : 294–303.

Norris Reinero CR, Decile KC, Berghaus RD, Williams KJ, Leutenegger CM, Walby Schelegle WF, Hyde DM, Gershwin LJ. An Ex-perimental Model of Allergic Asthma in Cats Sensitized to House Dust Mite or Bermuda Grass Allergen. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2004; 135: 117–31.

Xi J, Si XA, Kim J, Zhang Y, Jacob RE, Kabilan S, Corley RA. Anatomical Details of the Rabbit Nasal Passages and Their Implica-tions in Breathing, Air Conditioning, and Olfac-tion. Anat Rec. 2016; 299: 853–8.

Saber AS, Caceci T, Gummow B, Johns K. Morphometric Studies on the Skull of the Australian Domestic Cat (F. catus) and its Clini-cal Implications for Regional Anesthesia. J. Vet. Anat. 2016; 9 (1): 1 –24.

Gürbüz I, DemiraslanY, Aslan K. Mor-phometric Analysis of the Skull of New Zea-land Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus L.) Accord-ing to Gender. A RC J Anim and Vet Sci. 2015;1 (1): 27–32.

Hall LW, Clarke KW, Trim CM. Veteri-nary Anaesthesia. 10th ed. WB Saunders. Har-court Publishers Limited. 2001; 441 –66.

Bohler A, Henninger W. Computed to-mography of the rabbit head without general anaesthesia.Vet. Med. Austria / Wien. Tierنrztl. Mschr. 2008; 95: 116 –20.

Simoens R, Poles R, Lauwers H. Mor-phometric analysis of foramen magnum in Pe-kingese dogs. Am J Vet Res. 1994; 55: 33–9.

Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria. 5th ed, prepared by the International Committe on Vet-erinary Gross Anatomical Nomenclature (I.C.V.G.A.N.) and authorized by the General assembly of the World Association of Veteri-nary Anatomists (W.A.V.A.), konxville,T.N (USA). Published by the Editorial Committee, Hannover, Columbia, Ghent and Sapporo. 2012; 11–9.

SAS. SAS statistical system Package-Jmp 8 User’s Guide.2nd Cary, NC, SAS Institute Inc. USA. 2009, ISBN 978-1-60764-301–2.

Sarma K, Nashiruddullah K, Islam S. Anatomy of the skull of a leopard cat (Felis bengalensis). Indian J. anim sci, 2001; 71 (11): 1011–3.

.Künzel, W, Breit S, Oppel M. Morpho-metric investigations of breed-specific features in feline skulls and considerations on their functional implications. Anat Histol Embryol, 2003; 32 (4): 218–23.

Monfared AL. Anatomy of the Persian Cat’s Skull and its Clinical Value During Re-gional Anesthesia. Global Veterinaria. 2013 10 (5): 551–5.

Böhmer C, Böhmer E. Shape Variation in the Craniomandibular System and Prevalence of Dental Problems in Domestic Rabbits: A Case Study in Evolutionary Veterinary Science. Vet. Sci, 2017; 4, 5

Nameer PO, Nasser PO, Ipe MO, Ommar PA. Anatomy of Jungle cat skull (Felis chaus, Schreber). Zoos' Print J, 2003; 18 (2): 1011–8.

Farag FM, Daghash SM, Mohamed EF, Hussein MM, Hagrass SM. Anatomical studies on the skull of the domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) with special reference to the hyoid apparatus. J. Vet. Anat, 2012; 5 (2): 49–70.

Nickel R, Schummer A, Seiferle E. Anatomy of the domestic animals. Vol . 1986, Verlag Paul Parey, Berlin and Hamburg.

Brewer NR. Historical Special Topic Overview on Rabbit Comparative Biology. J Am Assoc Lab Anim. 2006; 45 (1): 8–24.

Salih KM. Gross Anatomical And Moro-phmetrical Studies To The Skull Bones Of The Local Rabbit (Oryctohguscuniculus). Bas j vet Res. 2013; 12 (2), 267–77

King AM, Cranfield F, Hall J, Sullivan M. Anatomy and ultrasonographic appearance of the tympanic bulla and associated structures in the rabbit. Vet J. 2007; 173, 512–21.

Popesko P, Rajtova V, Horak J. 1992 A colour atlas of the anatomy of small laboratory animals, Vol.1, Rabbit and guinea pig. Wolfe Publishing, Bratislava.

Monfared AL. Applied Anatomy of the Rabbit's Skull and its Clinical Application Dur-ing Regional Anesthesia. Global Veterinaria, 2013; 10 (6): 653–7.

Getty R. Sisson and Crossman: Carni-vore

Osteology. Skull. In the anatomy of the domes-tic animals. 1975, 5th Ed. W.B. Saunders Com-pany.

Miller ME. Guide to the dissection of the dog, 2004, fourth edition W.B. Saunders com-pany.

Salih KM. Morphological and morph metric study of the mandible in the local Rab-bits (Oryctolagus Cunicuius). Iraqi J. Vet. Sci. 2016; 40(1): 25–9.

Barone R, Pavaux C, Blin PC, Cuq P. 1973, Atlas of Rabbit Anatomy (Masson et Cie, Paris), 11–50.

Little CJ, Lane JG. The surgical anato-my of the feline bulla tympanica. J Small Anim Pract, 1986; 27, 371–8.

Casteleyn C, Cornillie P, Hermens A, Van, LD, Hoorebeke LV, Broeck W, Simoens P. Topography of the rabbit paranasal sinuses as a prerequisite to model human sinusitis. Rhinol-ogy. 2010; 48: 300–4.

Varga M. Textbook of the rabbit medi-cine. 2014, Second edition. Butterworth Heine-mann Elsevier inc.

Kara CO. Animal Models of Sinusitis: Relevance to Human Disease. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2004; 4:496–9.

Pereira ME, Macri NP, Creasy DM. Eval-uation of the Rabbit Nasal Cavity in Inhalation Studies and a Comparison with Other Common Laboratory Species and Man. Toxicol Pathol. 2011; 39: 893–900.

Özkadif S, Eken E. Three-dimensional reconstruction of multidetector computed to-mography images of paranasal sinuses of New Zealand rabbit. Turk J Vet Anim Sci. 2013; 37: 675–81.

Ozcan KM, Akdogan O, Kopara S, Oz-can I, Gurgen SG, Ozogul C, Selcuk A, Deren T, Dere H. Comparison of Histopathological and CT Findings in Experimental Rabbit Sinusi-tis. Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 201; 63: 56–9.

Hadad S. Some anatomical studies on the development of the nasal cavity and its related structures in the white New Zeeland. PhD thesis. 2015.

Ragab SA, Abouelela YS, Daghash SM, Khattab MA, Tahon RR. Comparative morpho-logical and histochemical characteristics of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses of adult rab-bits and domestic cats in Egypt. Inter J Vet Sci. 2018; 7 (2): 97–105.




How to Cite




Veterinary medicine: Research and application