Mohamed El-Katcha, Mosaad Soltan, Karima El-Naggar, Set El-Shobokshy, Mohamed El-Erian


For 8 weeks feeding trial, two hundred and seventy, 53 weeks old laying hens were used to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of vitamin B12 or biotin and/or bile acids on performance, egg quality, fat digestibility and liver composition and histopathology. Birds were randomly divided into 6 groups (three replicates) and fed the experimental diets; group1 (G1) fed on the basal diet without additives as control while G2 and G3 supplemented with 0.02 ppm vitamin B12 and 0.3 mg biotin/kg diet respectively, groups 4-6 fed as the previous detailed design of G1- G3 with the addition of 400 g of dried bile acid (DBA) /tone feed. Biotin supplementation significantly (P˂0.05) increased body weight losses of laying hens, both vitamins significantly (P˂0.05) decreased daily feed intake (FI) and improved FCR. DBA addition alone or with biotin reduced these weight losses along with significant (P˂0.05) increase in daily FI. Vitamin B12 supplementation alone or with DBA increased average egg production (P˂0.05) while was reduced with biotin supplementation. Fat digestibility was non-significantly improved (P≥0.05) with both vitamins supplementation without or with DBA. Biotin significantly (P˂0.05) reduced the average yolk relative weight, which was increased when mixed with DBA, while significantly increased average egg albumin relative weight. Vitamin B12 or biotin addition without or with DBA non-significantly increased blood serum GOT and GPT activities, non-significantly reduced (P≥0.05) fat content of liver tissue (on dry matter or fresh basis) and serum lipid profile parameters except serum HDL concentration, was increased, with no histopathological changes in hepatic tissue. It could be summarized that vitamin B12 supplementation without or with DBA is recommended in layer diet as it gave the best performance, reduced serum lipid profile and improved fat digestibility and the hepatic health.

Key words: layers; egg quality; liver; vitamin B12; biotin; bile acids

Full Text:



Crespo R, Shivaprasad HL, Develop-mental, metabolic, and other noninfectious disorders, in: YME Saif (Ed.), Diseases of Poultry, Iowa State Press, Ames, Iowa, 2003, 1055–102.

Hermier D. Lipoprotein metabolism and fattening in poultry. J Nutr 1997; 127(5 Suppl): 805s-–8s.

Hansen RJ, Walzem RL. Avian fatty liver hemorrhagic syndrome: a comparative review. Adv Vet Sci Comp Med 1993; 37: 451–68.

Rinella ME, Elias MS, Smolak RR, Fu T, Borensztajn J, Green RM. Mechanisms of hepatic steatosis in mice fed a lipogenic methionine choline-deficient diet. J Lipid Res 2008; 49(5): 1068–76.

Yousefi M, Shivazad M, Sohrabi-Haghdoost I. Effect of Dietary Factors on Induction of Fatty Liver-Hemorrhagic Syndrome and its Diagnosis Methods with Use of Serum and Liver Parameters in Laying Hens. Int J Poult Sci 2005; 4: 568–72.

Couch J. Fatty livers in laying hens - a condition which may occur as a result of increased strain. Feedstuffs 1956: 28–46.

Leeson S. Metabolic Challenges: Past, Present, and Future. J Appl Poult Res 2007; 16(1): 121–5.

Whitehead CC, Blair R, Bannister DW, Evans AJ, Jones RM. The involvement of biotin in preventing the fatty liver and kidney syndrome in chicks. Res Vet Sci 1976; 20(2): 180–4.

Whitehead CC, Bannister DW, Evans AJ, Siller WG, Wight PAL. Biotin deficiency and fatty liver and kidney syndrome in chicks given purified diets containing different fat and protein levels. Br J Nutr 1976; 35(1): 115–25.

Reshetnyak VI. Physiological and mole-cular biochemical mechanisms of bile formation. World J Gastroenterol 2013; 19(42): 7341–60.

Quarantelli A, Bonomi A, Righi F, et al. The effects of different levels of dietary biotin on the performances and on bone growth in the broiler. Ital J Anim Sci 2003; 2 (sup1): 453–5.

Lai W, Huang W, Dong B, et al. Effects of dietary supplemental bile acids on performance, carcass characteristics, serum lipid metabolites and intestinal enzyme activities of broiler chickens. Poult sci 2018; 97(1): 196–202.

Alzawqari MH, Al-Baadani HH, Alhidary IB, Al-Owaimer AN, Abudabos AM. Effect of taurine and bile acid supplementation and their interaction on performance, serum components, ileal viscosity and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens. S Afr J Anim Sci 2016; 46: 448–57.

Cengiz Ö, Hess JB, Bilgili SF. Dietary biotin supplementation does not alleviate the development of footpad dermatitis in broiler chickens. J Appl Poult Res 2012; 21(4): 764–9.

NRC, Nutrient requirements of poultry. 9th Ed. Washington, DC: National Academic Press, 1994.

AOAC, Official methods of analysis. (18th ed.) Washington, DC: AOAC: Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 2005.

Card LE, Nesheim MC, Poultry Production, 11th Edn. Phidelphia: Lea and febiger Press, 1972.

Rotenberg S, Christensen K. Spectro-photometric Determination of Total and Free Cholesterol in Egg Yolk and Animal Tissues. Acta Agric Sc and A 1976; 26(2): 94–8.

Bancroft JD, Layton C, Suvarna SK, Bancroft’s Theory and Practice of Histological Techniques. 7th edition. Churchill Livingstone: Elsevier, 2013.

Kato R, Bertechini A, Fassani E, Santos C, Dionizio M, Fialho E. Cobalt and vitamin B12 in diets for commercial laying hens on the second cycle of production. Braz J Poult Sci 2003; 5: 45–50.

Squires MW, Naber EC.Vitamin profiles of eggs as indicators of nutritional status in the laying hen: vitamin B12 study. Poult sci 1992; 71(12): 2075–82.

Halle I, Ebrahem M. Influence of Vitamin B12 and Cobalt on performance of laying hens Landbauforschung 2012; 3(62): 111–6.

Abdel-Mageed MAA, Shabaan SA. Effect of supplemental biotin on the performance of aged fayoumi hens and progeny performance Egypt Poult Sci 2012; 32: 895–8.

Whitehead CC. Biotin- New information on requirements and supplementation in poultry, In Proceedings of Roche symposium, London, 1980.

Russell DW, Setchell KDR. Bile acid biosynthesis. Biochemistry 1992; 31(20): 4737–49.

Maisonnier S, Gomez J, Bree A, Berri C, Baeza E, Carre B. Effects of microflora status, dietary bile salts and guar gum on lipid digestibility, intestinal bile salts, and histomo-rphology in broiler chickens. Poult sci 2003; 82(5): 805–14.

Parsaie S, Shariatmadari F, Zamiri MJ, Khajeh K. Influence of wheat-based diets supple-mented with xylanase, bile acid and antibiotics on performance, digestive tract measurements and gut morphology of broilers compared with a maize-based diet. Br Poult Sci 2007; 48(5): 594–600.

Alzawqari M, Moghaddam HN, Kermanshahi H, Raji AR.The effect of desiccated ox bile supplementation on performance, fat digestibility, gut morphology and blood chemistry of broiler chickens fed tallow diets. J Appl Anim Res 2011; 39(2): 169–74.

Soltan MA. Effect of diet containing Nigella Sativa (Black seeds) and/or ox bile on growth and productive performance of Japanese quail. AJVS 1999; 15(3): 655–69.

Bunchasak C, Kachana S. Dietary folate and vitamin B12 supplementation and consequent vitamin deposition in chicken eggs. Trop Anim Health Prod 2009; 41(7): 1583.

Daryabari H, Akhlaghi A, Zamiri MJ, et al. Reproductive performance and oviductal expre-ssion of avidin and avidin-related protein-2 in young and old broiler breeder hens orally exposed to supplementary biotin. Poult sci 2014; 93(9): 2289–95.

Whitehead CC. Biotin intake and transfer to the egg and chick in broiler breeder hens housed on litter or in cages. Br Poult Sci 1984; 25(2): 287–92.

Keshavarz K. Effects of reducing dietary protein, methionine, choline, folic acid, and vitamin B12 during the late stages of the egg production cycle on performance and egg shell quality. Poult sci 2003; 82(9): 1407–14.

Rajalekshmy PK, Effects of dietary choline, folic acid and vitamin B12 on laying hen performance, egg components and egg phospho-lipid composition(Ph.D.).University of Nebraska, Lincolin, 2010.

El-Husseiny OM, Soliman AZ, Omara II, El-Sherif HMR. Evaluation of Dietary Methionine, Folic Acid and Cyanocobalamin (B12) and Their Interactions in Laying Hen Performance. Int J Poult Sci 2008; 7: 461–9.

Mori AV, Mendonca JR, Watanabe C. Effects of cholestyramine and lovastatin upon plasma lipids and egg yolk cholesterol levels of laying hens. Braz J Vet Res Anim Sci 2000; 37: 00–00.

Ismail IB, Al-Busadah KA, El-Bahr SM. Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Canola Oil on Egg Production, Quality and Biochemistry of Egg Yolk and Plasma of Laying Hen. Int J Biol Chem 2013; 7: 27–37.

Miller NE, Nestel PJ, Clifton-Bligh P. Relationships between plasma lipoprotein chole-sterol concentrations and the pool size and metabolism of cholesterol in man. Atherosclerosis 1976; 23(3): 535–47.

Marjanovic D, Kozic L, Petrovic M, Palic T, Litricin V. Serum transaminase activity in fowls. Vet Bull 1975; 45: 2890–6.

Trott KA, Giannitti F, Rimoldi G, et al. Fatty liver hemorrhagic syndrome in the backyard chicken: a retrospective histopathologic case series. Vet Pathol 2014; 51(4): 787–95.

Watanabe M, Houten SM, Mataki C, et al. Bile acids induce energy expenditure by promoting intracellular thyroid hormone activation. Nature 2006; 439(7075): 484–9.

Lai W, Cao A, Li J, Zhang W, Zhang L. Effect of High Dose of Bile Acids Supplementation in Broiler Feed on Growth Performance, Clinical Blood Metabolites, and Organ Development. J Appl Poult Res 2018; 27(4): 532–9.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Gerbičeva 60, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia, T: +386 (0)1 47 79 100, F: +386 (0)1 28 32 243, E:
Published by