Malik Khalafalla, Rady Mohamed, Mohamed Zayed, Ahmed Metwally


Four diets were formulated to include different sources of animal by-products as a protein source in Nile tilapia (5.79 ± 0.05 g) diets. The first group fed diet containing fish meal (T1), while the 2nd, 3rd and 4th groups fed a mixture of poultry by-product meal (PBM), animal by-product meal (ABM) and kitchen waste meal (KWM) at 50:25:25 (T2); 25:50:25 (T3) and 25:25:50 (T4) ratio, respectively. All diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous and isolipidic. After 120 days, apparent digestibility and growth parameters were measured. The obtained results revealed that, the chemical composition of fish meal had the highest value of protein followed by PBM and KWM. Fish meal had higher essential amino acids content, except for the threonine and arginine amino acids, followed by PBM and ABM. The highest apparent digestibility of crude protein and ether extract were recorded in T1 and T2 followed by T4 and T3 groups. T1 and T2 groups exhibited significantly (P<0.05) the highest growth performance over fish fed T3 and T4 diets. It could be suggested that using of waste protein sources especially containing high PBM as a replacement for fish meal to reduce the feed cost per Kg fish Production.

Key words: animal by products; aigestibility; aish meal; arowth; Nile tilapia

Full Text:



MahfouzM, Hegazi M, El-Magd M, Kasem E. Metabolic and molecular responses in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus during short and prolonged hypoxia. Marine and Freshwater Be-haviour and Physiology 2015; 48: 319–40.

Tacon A and Forster I. Biotechnology in aquatic feeds. In: Biotechnology-Aquaculture Interface: National Conservation and Training Center, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Center, Shep-herdstown, West Virginia, March 2001; 5–7.

Dawood MAO, Eweedah NM, Moustafa EM, Shahin MG. Synbiotic Effects of Aspergil-lus oryzae and β-glucan on Growth, Oxidative and Immune Responses of Nile Tilapia, Oreo-chromis niloticus. Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins 2019: 1–12.

GAFRD. General authority of fish re-source department, one of the authorities of the Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation. Fish statistics year book. Egypt, 2015.

. Wilson R. Amino acids and protein. In: Halver, J.E. and Hardy, R.W.,(Eds.) Fish Nutri-tion 2002; 143-179. San Diego, CA, USA.

Sogbesan O, Ugwumba A and Madu C. Nutritive potentials and utilization of garden snail (Limicolaria aurora) meat meal in the diet of Clarias gariepinus fingerlings. African J. Biotech. 2006; 4:124 –45.

Zhang Y, Ji W, Wu Y, et al. Replacement of dietary fish meal by soybean meal supple-mented with crystalline methionine for Japanese seabass (Lateolabrax japonicus). Aquaculture Research 2016; 47: 243–52.

Naylor R, Hardy R, Bureau D, et al. Feed-ing aquaculture in an era of finite resources. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sci-ences 2009; 106: 15103–10.

Shapawi R, Ng W, and Mostafa S. Re-placement of fish meal with poultry by-product meal in diets formulated for the humpback grouper (Cromileptes altivelis). Aquaculture 2007; 273: 118–389.

NRC. National Research Council). Nutri-tional requirement of fish. National Academy press, Washington DC. 1993, 114.

AOAC (2006). Official Methods of Analysis. Horwitz W. 18th edition 2006, Wash-ington, DC: 1018

Duncan D. Multiple range and multiple F tests. Biometrics 1955; 11:1–42.

SAS. SAS User's Guide 1986; Version 6 Edition SAS Institute, Cary, NCUSA.

Olvera-Novoa M, Pereira-Pacheco F, Ol-ivera-Castillo L. et al,. Vigna unguiculata pro-tein concentrate as a replacement for fishmeal in diet for tilapia (Oreochromis nitloticus) fry. Aquaculture 1997; 158: 107–16.

Sugiura S, Dong F, and Hardy R. Primary responses of rainbow trout to dietary phospho-rus concentration. Aqua. Nutrition 2000; 6: 235–45.

Aydin B, and Gumus E. Replacement of Fish Meal by Poultry By-product Meal with Lysine, Methionine and Threonine Supplemen-tation to Practical Diets for Nile Tilapia Fry (Oreochromis niloticus), Isr. J. Aquaculture - Bamidgeh, IJA 2013; 65:.885 –92.

Cruz-Suarez L, Tapia -Salazar M, Vil-lareal -Cavazos D, et al. Apparent dry matter, energy, protein and amino acid digestibility of four Soybean ingredients in white shrimp Li-topenaeus vannamei juveniles .Aquaculture 2009; 292: 87–94.

Yones A, and Metwalli A. Effects of Fish Meal Substitution with Poultry By-product Meal on Growth Performance, Nutrients Utiliza-tion and Blood Contents of Juvenile Nile Tilap-ia (Oreochromis niloticus). J. Aquac. Res. De-velopment 2016; 7:389–96.

Johnson M, and Parsons C. Effects of raw material source, ash content and assay length on protein efficiency ratio and net pro-tein ratio values for animal protein meals. Poul-try Science 1997; 76: 1722-–7.

Prado, J.P.S.; Cavalheiro, J.M.O.; Caval-heiro, T. B. and Silva, F.V.G. (2016). Degrada-tion of amino acids by leaching in feeds for shrimp,. Gaia Scientia,10: 361–71.

Willingham, W.T.; Colt, J. E .; Fava, J.A. ; Al Hillaby, B. ; Ho, C.L.; Katz,M.; Russo, R.C. and Wood, D.L. ( 2004). Dogmas and contro-versies in the handling of nitrogenous wastes: is exogenous ammonia a growth stimulant in fish? J. Exp. Biol., 207: 2043–54.

Silvão,C.F. and Nunes, A.J. (2017). Ef-fect of dietary amino acid composition from proteins alternative to fishmeal on the growth of juveniles of the common snook, Centropomus Undecimalis, Res. Bras. Zootec., 46:569–75.

NRC (2011). Nutrient Requirements of Fish and Shrimp - Books & Reviews

Hernandez, C.; Osuna, L.O.; Hernandez, A.B.; Gutierrez ,Y.S. and Rodriguez ,B.G. (2014). Replacement of fish meal by poultry by-product meal, food grade, in diets for juve-nile spotted rose snapper (Lutjanusguttatus). Latin American Journal of Aquatic Research, 42:111–20

Rawles, S.D.; Richie, M.; Gaylord, T.G.; Webb, J. and Freeman, D.W. (2006) .Evaluation of poultry by-product meal in commercial diets for hybrid striped bass (Morinechrysops × Moronesaxatilis) in recirculated tank production .Aquaculture, 259: 377–89.

Yones, A.M.M. and Metwalli, A.A. (2016).Effects of Fish Meal Substitution with Poultry By-product Meal on Growth Perfor-mance, Nutrients Utilization and Blood Con-tents of Juvenile Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis ni-loticus). J. Aquac. Res. Development, 7:389.

Jamil,K.; Abbas,G.; Akhtar,R.; Hong, L.and Zhenxing ,L. (2007). Effects of replacing fishmeal with animal by-products meal supple-mentation in diets on the growth and nutrient utilization of mangrove red snapper, J. Ocean Univ. China, 6:292–98.

Kureshy, N., Davis, D. A. and Arnold, C. D. (2000): Partial replacement of fish meal with meat-and-bone meal, flash dried poultry by product meal and enzyme digested poultry by-product meal in practical diets for juvenile red drum. North American Journal of Aquaculture, 62: 266 –72.

Lee, H. Y. M.; Cho, K. C.; Lee, J. E. and Yang, S. G. (2001). Dietary protein requirement of juvenile giant croaker, Nibea japonica, Temminck and Schlegel. Aquaculture Research, 32:112–8.

Yi, M.; Yu, Q. and Huang, L. (2002). An idio gram on pachytene bivalents with high res-olution multiple bands of zebra fish. Sci. China (C), 45:370–8.

Diana, J.S.; Lin, C. K .and Yi, Y. (1995). Timing of supplemental feeding for tilapia pro-duction. J. World Aqua. Society (submit-ted).PP.117–25.

NRC (2011). Nutrient Requirements of Fish and Shrimp - Books & Reviews

Badillo ,D.; Herzka, S.Z. and Viana ,M.T. (2014). Protein Retention Assessment of Four Levels of Poultry By-Product Substitution of Fishmeal in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Diets Using Stable Isotopes of Nitrogen (d15N) as Natural Tracers. PLoS ONE 9(9): e107523.

Chitmanat,C.; Tipin, A.; Chaibu, P. and Traichaiyaporn, S.(2009). Effects of replacing fishmeal with wastes derived from local fisher-ies on the growth of juvenile tilapia, Oreo-chromis niloticus, J. Sci. Technol., 31: 105–10.

Yildirim, Ö. ; Türker, A. and Senel, B.( 2009). Effects of natural zeolite (Clinoptilolite) levels in fish diet on water quality, growth per-formance and nutrient utilization of Tilapia (Ti-lapia zillii ) fry. Fresenius Environ. Bulletin, 8:1567–71.

Wu, Y.; Wang, Y.; Ren, G.; Qin, J.G. and Kim, S.H. (2016). Improvement of fish meal replacements by soybean meal and soy protein concentrate in golden pompano diet through γ‐ray irradiation. Aqua. Nutrition, 22:873–80.

Dong, F.M.; Hardy, R.W.; Haard, N.F.; Borrows, F. and Forster, I.P. (1993). Chemical composition and protein digestibility of poultry by-product meals for salmonid diets. Aquacul-ture, 116: 149–58.

Essa, M.A. (1997). Utilization of some aquatic plants in diets for Nile tilapia, Oreo-chromis niloticus, fingerlings. Egypt J. Aquat. Biol. Fish, 1: 19–34.

Tabinda, A.B. and Butt, A. (2012). Re-placement of fish meal with PBM meal (Chick-en intestine) as a protein source in carp (grass carp) fry diet. Pakistan Journal of Zoology, 44:1373–81.

El-Saidy, D.M.S. and Gaber, M.M.A. (2003). Replacement of fish meal with a mix-ture of different plant protein sources in juve-nile Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (L.), di-ets. Aquaculture Research, 34: 1119–27.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Gerbičeva 60, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia, T: +386 (0)1 47 79 100, F: +386 (0)1 28 32 243, E:
Published by