PESTICIDES AND TOXIC METALS RESIDUES IN MUSCLE AND LIVER TISSUES OF SHEEP, CATTLE AND DROMEDARY CAMEL IN SAUDI ARABIA
Data regarding determination of pesticide residues and toxic elements in edible tissues of different animals particularly in the camels in Eastern region of Saudi Arabia are scarce. Therefore, current study aimed to evaluate levels of forty-five pesticides and heavy metals (lead (Pb); cadmium (Cd); Arsenic (As)) in muscle and liver tissue samples that collected from forty-two animals; sheep (n=21), cattle (n=11) and dromedary camels (n=10) admitted to Al-Ahsa abattoir, Eastern province, Saudi Arabia. Seven of forty-five pesticides residues were detected in tissues by gas chromatographic mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The detected pesticides were organophosphorus (diazinon, profenofos and coumaphos), pyrethroid (cypermethrin, permethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin) and acaricide (amitraz). Diazinon has been detected in both muscle and liver tissues of all examined carcasses. However, other detected residues distributed according to species. All toxic metals have been detected in both muscle and liver tissues of all tested animals. The heavy metal loads were species independent. The concentrations of Pb and As in liver tissues were comparable to that of muscle tissues of all tested animals. However, the concentrations of Cd in liver were significantly higher than that in muscles of all tested animals. All values of detected pesticide residues and heavy metals were below the maximum residue limits (MRLs). In conclusion, pesticide residues and toxic metals were detected in meat and liver tissues of sheep, cattle and dromedary camels that admitted to Al-Ahsa abattoir, Saudi Arabia. The detected pesticides residues and toxic metals were well below MRLs; thereby no risks are associated with its human consumption.
Key words: chromatography; residues; toxic elements; meat; pesticides; animals
Saggu S, Rehma H, Alzeiber FMA, Aziz A. Current situation of pesticide consumption and poisoning in Saudi Arabia. Journal of En-tomology and Zoology Studies 2016; 4(3): 153â€“8.
Mozib M, El-Shafie HA. Effect of red palm weevil, Rhynchophorusferrugineus (Olivi-er) infestation on temperature profiles of date palm tree. Journal of Entomology and Nematol-ogy 2013; 5(6): 77â€“3.
Jian-Ying H, Takako A, Yasumoto M. Analysis of pesticides in water with liquid at-mospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Water Research 1999; 33(2): 417â€“25.
WHO (World Health Organization). Health risks of heavy metals from long-range trans boundary air pollution, 978 92 890 71796 WHO Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2007.
Miyahara M, Saito Y. Effects of the pro-cessing steps in tofu production on pesticide residues. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry1994; 42(2): 369â€“73.
Gilbert L, GracÄ±a B, Mezcua M, Ramos N, Fernandez AR, Molina A. Multi-residue deter-mination of pesticides in fruit-based soft drinks by fast liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Talanta 2010; 81: 1310â€“1321.
Herdman, RC, Pahrham, WE, Shen S. Pes-ticide Residues in Food: Technologies for De-tection. Government Printing Office, Washing-ton, 1988.
Tao S, Liu, WX, Li XQ, Zhou DX, Li X, Yang YF, Yue DP, Coveney RM. Organochlo-rine pesticide residuals in chickens and eggs at a poultry farm in Beijing, China. Environmental Pollution 2009; 157: 497â€“502.
Sallam KI, Morshedy AMA. Organochlo-rine pesticide residues in camel, cattle and sheep carcasses slaughtered in Sharkia Prov-ince, Egypt. Food Chemistry 2008; 108: 154â€“64.
Shinde AK, Karim SA. Screening of pes-ticide residues in meat and milk samples of sheep maintained in institute and field flocks. Indian Journal of small ruminants 2009; 15(1): 92Â¬4.
Jadhav VJ, Waskar VS. Public Health Implications of Pesticide Residues in Meat. Vet-erinary World 2011; 4(4): 178â€“82.
Elgasim EA, Alkanhal MA. Proximate composition, amino acids and inorganic mineral content of Arabian camel meat: comparative study. Food Chemistry 1992; 45(1): 1â€“4.
European Food Safety Authority â€“ EFSA. Scientific opinion on arsenic in food. EFSA panel on contaminants in the food chain (CONTAM). European Food Safety Authority 2009a; 1351: 1Â¬199.
European Food Safety Authority â€“ EFSA. Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Con-taminants in the Food Chain on a request from the Commission related to lead as undesirable substance in animal feed. European Food Safe-ty Authority 2004; 72:1â€“24.
Mehennaoui, S, Charles E, Joseph-Enriquez B, ClauwM, Milhaud GE. Indicators of lead, zinc and cadmium exposure in cattle I and II. Veterinary and Human Toxicology 1988; 30: 550â€“5.
Rumbeiha, WK, Braselton, WE, Donch D. A retrospective study on the disappearance of blood lead in cattle with accidental lead toxi-cosis. Journal Veterinary Clinical Investigations 2001; 13: 373â€“8.
Nilsson U, Attewell R, Christoffersson JO, Schultz A, Ahlgren L, Skerfving S, Mattsson S. Kinetics of lead in bone and blood after end of occupational exposure. Pharmacological and Toxicological 1991; 68: 477â€“84.
Rabinowitz MB. Toxicokinetics of bone lead. Environmental Health Perspectives 1991; 91: 33â€“7.
Nakamori T, Kaneko N. Biomarker re-sponses reveal that food quality affects cadmi-um exposure in soli collembolan Folsomia can-dida. Environmental Pollution 2013; 176: 165â€“70.
European Food Safety Authority â€“ EFSA. Cadmium in food. Scientific opinion of the panel on contaminants in the food chain. European Food Safety Authority 2009b; 980: 1â€“139.
El-Ghareeb WR, Darwish WS, Meligy AMA. Metal contents in the edible tissues of camel and sheep: human dietary intake and risk assessment in Saudi Arabia. Japanese Journal of Veterinary Research 2019; 67(1): in press
Stan HJ. Pesticide residue analysis in foodstuffs applying capillary gas chromatog-raphy with mass spectrometric detection state-of-the-art use of modified DFG-multimethod S19 and automated data evaluation. Journal of Chromatography A 2000; 892: 347â€“77.
Albero B, Sanchez-Brunete C, Tadeo JL. Determination of organopho- sphorous pesti-cides in fruit juices by matrix solid-phase dis-persion and gas chromatography. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 2003; 51: 6915â€“21.
Pugliese P, MoltoÂ´ JC, Damiani P, MaÄ±ne R, Cossignani L, Manes J. Gas chromatographic evaluation of pesticide residue contents in nec-tarines after non-toxic washing treatment. Jour-nal of Chromatography A 2004; 1050:185â€“91.
Rial-Otero R, Arias-Estevez M, Lopez-Periago E, Cancho-Grande B, Simal- Gandara J. Variation in concentrations of the fungicides tebuconazole and dichlofuanid following suc-cessive applications to greenhouse-grown let-tuces. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemis-try 2005; 53 (11): 4471â€“5.
Balinova A, Mladenova R, Shtereva D. Solid-phase extraction on sorbents of different retention mechanisms followed by determina-tion by gas chromatographyâ€“mass spectrometric and gas chromatographyâ€“electron capture de-tection of pesticide residues in crops. Journal of Chromatography A 2007; 1150: 136â€“44.
Pose-Juan E, Cancho-Grande B, Rial-Otero R, Simal-Gandara J. The dissipation rates of cyprodinil, fludioxoni, procymidone and vinclozoline during storageofgrapejuice. Food Control 2006; 17(12):1012â€“7.
Berrada H, Fernandez M, Ruiz MJ, Mol-toÂ´ JC, Manes J, Font G. Surveillance of pesti-cide residues in fruits from Valencia during twenty months (2004/05). Food Control 2010; 21: 36â€“44.
Menezes FA., Neves F, Afonso de Paula Pereira P. Development, validation and applica-tion of a methodology based on solid- phase micro extraction followed by gas chromatog-raphy coupled to mass spectrometry (SPME/GCâ€“MS) for the determination of pesti-cide residues in mangoes. Talanta 2010; 81: 346â€“54.
Lazartigues A, Fratta C, Baudot R, Wiest L, Feidt C, Thomas M, Cren-OlivÃ© C. Multiresi-due method for the determination of 13 pesti-cides in three environmentalmatrices: water, sediments and fish muscle. Talanta 2011; 85(3):1500â€“7.
El-Bahr SM, Abdelghany AM. Heavy metal and trace element contents in edible mus-cle of three commercial fish species, and as-sessment of possible risks associated with their human consumption in Saudi Arabia. Journal of Advanced Veterinary and animal Research 2015; 2: 271â€“8.
Meligy AMA. Comparative study of el-ement contents in seven isolates of ento-mopathogenic nematodes. Egyptian Journal of Biological Pest Control 2018; 28:1
Guo FP, Yan ZC, Jin JZ, Chun LF, Yong ML, Xue ML, Guang QJ, Zeng YL, Yu QS, Yan PW, Tong TG. Validation study on 660 pesti-cide residues in animal tissues by gel permea-tion chromatography cleanup/gas chromatog-raphyâ€“mass spectrometry and liquid chromatog-raphyâ€“tandem mass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography A 2006; 1125: 1â€“30.
Al- Wabel, MI, El- Saeid, MH, Al- Turki AM, Abdel- Nasser G. Monitoring of Pesticide Residues in Saudi Arabia Agricultural Soils. Research Journal of Environmental Sciences 2011; 5: 269â€“78.
Mansour SA, Belal MH, Abou-Arab AAK, Gad MF. Monitoring of pesticide and heavy metals in cucumber fruits produced from different farming system. Chemosphere 2009; 75: 601â€“9.
Murray RK, Bender DA, Botham, KM, Kennelly PJ, Rodwell VW, Weil PA. Harper's Illustrated Biochemistry (Harper's Biochemis-try). 28th ed., McGgraw-Hill, 2012.
Korsrud G, Meldrum J, Salisbury C. Trace element levels in liver and kidney from cattle, swine and poultry slaughtered in Canada. Canadian Journal of Comparative Medicine 1985; 49: 159â€“63.
Filho JFA, Germano A, Dibai WLS, Var-gas EA, Melo MM. Heavy metals investigation in bovine tissues in Brazil. Food Science and Technology (Campinas) 2014; 34(1): 110â€“5.