THE INFLUENCE OF ISOFLURANE ANAESTHESIA ON INTESTINAL PERMEABILITY IN HEALTHY DOGS

Authors

  • Barbara Lukanc University of Ljubljana, Veterinary Faculty
  • Janoš Butinar Animal Hospital Postojna
  • Alenka Nemec Svete University of Ljubljana, Veterinary Faculty
  • Mirko Prošek National Institute of Chemistry
  • Alenka Seliškar University of Ljubljana, Veterinary Faculty

Abstract

This study investigated the most appropriate blood sampling time for determining the lactulose/mannitol (L/M) index, and whether isoflurane anaesthesia increases intestinal permeability in dogs, in terms of changes in the L/M index. Six dogs were given 100 ml of sugar solution (3.6 g lactulose and 3.4 g mannitol) with orogastric tube. Blood samples for determination of basal plasma L/M index were taken 90, 120, and 180 minutes later. The next day, the dogs were administered methadone, induced with midazolam mixed with ketamine, followed immediately by propofol, and anaesthesia maintained with isoflurane in oxygen for 200 minutes. The same sugar solution as the day before was administered at the end of anaesthesia and 12 and 24 hours post-anaesthesia. Blood samples were taken 90, 120 and 180 minutes after administration of sugar solution. HPLC-MS was used for plasma determination of lactulose and mannitol and the results expressed as L/M index. The highest concentrations of lactulose and mannitol were detected 120 minutes after administration of sugar solution. Lactulose/mannitol index significantly increased at the end of anaesthesia, regardless the sampling time, when compared to basal values from non-anaesthetized dogs. The increase of L/M index due to anaesthesia with isoflurane was short-lived as there was no significant difference between L/M index at 12 hours after the anaesthesia and basal values. The most appropriate blood sampling time for determining the L/M index is 120 minutes after oral administration of dual sugar solution.

Key words: dog; isoflurane; intestinal permeability; L/M index

 

VPLIV ANESTEZIJE Z IZOFLURANOM NA PREPUSTNOST ČREVESJA PRI ZDRAVIH PSIH

Namen raziskave je bil ugotoviti najprimernejši čas odvzema krvi za določanje razmerja med laktulozo in manitolom (indeks L/M) in za ugotavljanje ali anestezija z izofluranom zveča indeks L/M in s tem prepustnost črevesne bariere pri psih. Šestim psom smo z orogastrično sondo dali 100 ml sladkorne raztopine, in sicer 3,6 g laktuloze in 3,4 g manitola. Za določitev bazalne vrednosti indeksa L/M smo psom odvzeli kri 90, 120 in 180 minut po dajanju sladkorne raztopine. Naslednji dan smo jih premedicirali z metadonom, v anestezijo pa uvedli z midazolamom s ketaminom in propofolom. Anestezijo smo vzdrževali z izofluranom v kisiku 200 minut. Enako sladkorno raztopino smo psom dali še trikrat, in sicer na koncu anestezije ter 12 in 24 ur po anesteziji. Po vsakem dajanju sladkorne raztopine smo po 90, 120 in 180 minutah odvzeli kri za določitev indeksa L/M. Laktulozo in manitol v plazmi smo določali z metodo HPLC-MS in rezultat izrazili kot indeks L/M. Najvišjo koncentracijo laktuloze in manitola smo zaznali 120 minut po dajanju sladkorne raztopine. Indeks L/M se je, v primerjavi z bazalnimi vrednostmi pri neanesteziranih psih, na koncu anestezije značilno zvišal ne glede na čas odvzema krvi. Anestezija z izofluranom kratkotrajno zveča indeks L/M, saj že 12 ur po anesteziji ni bilo značilne razlike v primerjavi z bazalno vrednostjo. Najprimernejši čas odvzema krvi za določitev indeksa L/M je 120 minut po dajanju sladkorne raztopine.

Ključne besede: pes; izofluran; prepustnost črevesja; indeks L/M

Author Biographies

Barbara Lukanc, University of Ljubljana, Veterinary Faculty

PhD, DVM

Janoš Butinar, Animal Hospital Postojna

PhD, DVM, Full Prof

Alenka Nemec Svete, University of Ljubljana, Veterinary Faculty

PhD, BSc, Assoc Prof

Mirko Prošek, National Institute of Chemistry

PhD, BSc

Alenka Seliškar, University of Ljubljana, Veterinary Faculty

PhD, DVM, Assist Prof

References

(1) Hollander D. Intestinal permeability, leaky gut, and intestinal disorders. Curr Gastroenterol Rep 1999; 1: 410–6.

(2) Fleming SC, Duncan A, Russell RI, et al. Measurement of sugar probes in serum: an alternative to urine measurement in intestinal permeability testing. Clin Chem 1996; 42: 445–8.

(3) Garden OA, Manners HK, Sørensen SH, et al. Intestinal permeability of Irish setter puppies challenged with a controlled oral dose of gluten. Res Vet Sci 1998; 65: 23–8.

(4) Sørensen SH, Proud FJ, Rutgers HC, et al. A blood test for intestinal permeability and function: a new tool for the diagnosis of chronic intestinal disease in dogs. Clin Chim Acta 1997; 264: 103–15.

(5) Steiner JM, Williams DA, Moeller EM. Kinetics of urinary recovery of five sugars after orogastric administration in healthy dogs. Am J Vet Res 2002; 63: 845–8.

(6) Cox MA, Iqbal TH, Cooper BT, et al. An analytical method for the quantitation of mannitol and disaccharides in serum: a potentially useful technique in measuring small intestinal permeability in vivo. Clin Chim Acta 1997; 263: 197–205.

(7) Bjarnason I, MacPherson A, Hollander D. Intestinal permeability: an overview. Gastroenterology 1995; 108: 1566–81.

(8) Deitch EA, Morrison J, Berg R, et al. Effect of hemorrhagic shock on bacterial translocation, intestinal morphology, and intestinal permeability in conventional and antibiotic-decontaminated rats. Crit Care Med 1990; 18: 529–36.

(9) Craven M, Chandler ML, Steiner JM, et al. Acute effects of carprofen and meloxicam on canine gastrointestinal permeability and mucosal absorptive capacity. J Vet Intern Med 2007; 21: 917–23.

(10) Huchzermeyer H, Schumann C. Lactulose--a multifaceted substance. Z Gastroenterol 1997; 35: 945–55.

(11) Lambert GP. Stress-induced gastrointestinal barrier dysfunction and its inflammatory effects. J Anim Sci 2009; 87: E101–8.

(12) Laker MF, Menzies IS. Increase in human intestinal permeability following ingestion of hypertonic solutions. J Physiol 1977; 265: 881–94.

(13) Fleming SC, Kynaston JA, Laker MF, et al. Analysis of multiple sugar probes in urine and plasma by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed electrochemical detection. Application in the assessment of intestinal permeability in human immunodeficiency virus infection. J Chromatogr 1993; 640: 293–7.

(14) Kanwar S, Windsor AC, Welsh F, et al. Lack of correlation between failure of gut barrier function and septic complications after major upper gastrointestinal surgery. Ann Surg 2000; 231: 88–95.

(15) Liverani E, Silveri NG, Gasbarrini G, et al. Intestinal permeability increases with the severity of abdominal trauma: a comparison between gas liquid chromatographic and enzymatic method. Hepatogastroenterology 2000; 47: 1037–41.

(16) Roškar T, Nemec Svete A, Jerin A, et al. Effect of meloxicam and meloxicam with misoprostol on serum prostaglandins and gastrointestinal permeability in healthy beagle dogs. Acta Veterinaria 2011; 1: 33–47.

(17) Rowlands BJ, Soong CV, Gardiner KR. The gastrointestinal tract as a barrier in sepsis. Br Med Bull 1999; 55: 196–211.

(18) Hartman JC, Pagel PS, Proctor LT, et al. Influence of desflurane, isoflurane and halothane on regional tissue perfusion in dogs. Can J Anaesth 1992; 39: 877–87.

(19) Papasouliotis K, Gruffydd-Jones TJ, Sparkes AH, et al. Lactulose and mannitol as probe markers for in vivo assessment of passive intestinal permeability in healthy cats. Am J Vet Res 1993; 54: 840–4.

(20) Davies NM. Review article: non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced gastrointestinal permeability. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1998; 12: 303–20.

(21) Randell SC, Hill RC, Scott KC, et al. Intestinal permeability testing using lactulose and rhamnose: a comparison between clinically normal cats and dogs and between dogs of different breeds. Res Vet Sci 2001; 71: 45–9.

(22) Rodríguez H, Berghoff N, Suchodolski JS, et al. Kinetic analysis of 5 sugar probes in dog serum after orogastric administration. Can J Vet Res 2009; 73: 217–23.

(23) Velasco N, Hernandez G, Wainstein C, et al. Influence of polymeric enteral nutrition supplemented with different doses of glutamine on gut permeability in critically ill patients. Nutrition 2001; 17: 907–11.

(24) Derikx JPM, Luyer MDP, Heineman E, et al. Non-invasive markers of gut wall integrity in health and disease. World J Gastroenterol 2010; 16: 5272–9.

(25) Mandell DC, King LG. Fluid therapy in shock. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 1998; 28: 623–44.

(26) Ailiani AC, Neuberger T, Brasseur JG, et al. Quantifying the effects of inactin vs Isoflurane anesthesia on gastrointestinal motility in rats using dynamic magnetic resonance imaging and spatio-temporal maps. Neurogastroenterol Motil 2014; 26: 1477–86.

(27) Freye E, Sundermann S, Wilder-Smith OH. No inhibition of gastro-intestinal propulsion after propofol- or propofol/ketamine-N2O/O2 anaesthesia. A comparison of gastro-caecal transit after isoflurane anaesthesia. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 1998; 42: 664–9.

(28) Nakayoshi T, Kawasaki N, Suzuki Y, et al. Epidural administration of morphine facilitates time of appearance of first gastric interdigestive migrating complex in dogs with paralytic ileus after open abdominal surgery. J Gastrointest Surg 2007; 11: 648–54.

(29) Freye E, Helle G. Der Agonist-Antagonist Nalbuphin verlängert die gastro-coekale Transitzeit und induziert kurzfristig Schmerzen nach Neurolepanasthesie mit Fentanyl. Anästhesist 1988; 37: 440–5.

(30) Slattery PJ, Mark A, Couch RAF. Analgesic and gastrointestinal effects of nalbuphine: a comparison with pethidine. Anaesth Intensive Care 1986; 14: 121–5.

Downloads

Published

2017-10-01

How to Cite

Lukanc, B., Butinar, J., Nemec Svete, A., Prošek, M., & Seliškar, A. (2017). THE INFLUENCE OF ISOFLURANE ANAESTHESIA ON INTESTINAL PERMEABILITY IN HEALTHY DOGS. SLOVENIAN VETERINARY RESEARCH, 54(3). Retrieved from https://slovetres.si/index.php/SVR/article/view/290

Issue

Section

Original Research Article