Mehdi Amiri, Majid Gholami-Ahangaran, Mohsen Jafarian Dehkordi


To determine the aflatoxin effect on performance, and humoral and mucosal immunity, 240 one-day old chicks were divided into 4 equal groups. Treatment groups include Group 1: chickens that received a standard diet based on corn and soy as negative control, Group 2: chickens fed with a basal diet containing 3 ppm aflatoxin as positive control, Group 3: chickens fed with 0.25% Mycoad® in basal diet, and Group 4: chickens fed with diet containing 0.25% Mycoad® plus 3 ppm aflatoxin. All chickens continuously received diets from hatching until 28 days old. Growth indices, such as weight gain, feed consumption and food conversion rate, were determined weekly. At 28 days, all chickens were sacrificed. After blood sampling, serum was prepared to measure serum IgG titer against Newcastle disease vaccine using the HI method. Moreover, the heads were collected for nasaltracheal lavage for assaying IgA against infectious bronchitis vaccine in the mucosa of the respiratory tract. The measurement of mucosal IgA was carried out using the ELISA method with specific goat anti-chicken IgA. That results indicated that chickens that received aflatoxin demonstrated lower growth indices, and fewer serum IgG and mucosal IgA titers than others did, while performance and immune responses in chickens that received Mycoad® plus aflatoxin were significantly higher than chickens fed with aflatoxin alone. Overall, it seems that aflatoxin can affect mucosal immunity in the upper respiratory tract as well as performance and humoral immune responses. Supplementation of Mycoad® to diet contaminated with aflatoxin can reduce the adverse effects of aflatoxin on performance, as well as mucosal and systemic immune responses.

Key words: aflatoxin; chicken; immunity; Mycoad®



Da bi preuÄili vpliv aflatoksina na prirast in imunski odziv (sistemski in v sluznicah) piÅ¡Äancev, smo 240 enodnevnih piÅ¡Äancev razdelili na 4 enake skupine in jih od izvalitve do 28. dneva starosti hranili s 4 razliÄnimi krmami. Skupina 1 je predstavljala negativno kontrolo (piÅ¡Äanci, krmljeni s standardno krmo na osnovi koruze in soje), skupina 2 je bila pozitivna kontrola (piÅ¡Äanci, krmljeni s standardno krmo, ki je vsebovala 3 ppm aflatoksina), v skupini 3 so bili piÅ¡Äanci, krmljeni s standardno krmo z dodatkom 0,25 % Mycoad®-a, v skupini 4 pa piÅ¡Äanci, krmljeni s krmo, ki je vsebovala 3 ppm aflatoksina in 0,25 % Mycoad®-a plus. Tedensko smo doloÄali razliÄne pokazatelje rasti, kot so poveÄanje telesne mase, poraba krme in njen izkoristek. Po 28 dneh smo vse živali žrtvovali. Z uporabo metode HI smo v serumu doloÄili titer protiteles IgG proti virusu bolezni Newcastle ter v izpirku nosu in sapnika doloÄili titer protiteles IgG proti cepivu kužnega bronhitisa. Izmerili smo tudi raven sluzniÄnih protiteles IgA z metodo ELISA s specifiÄnimi kozjimi protitelesi proti piÅ¡ÄanÄjim protitelesom IgA. Rezultati so pokazali, da imajo piÅ¡Äanci, ki so prejeli aflatoksin, nižje indekse rasti in nižje titre tako serumskih protiteles IgG kot tudi sluzniÄnih protiteles IgA. Medtem pa sta bila prirast in imunski odziv pri piÅ¡Äancih, ki so prejeli poleg aflatoksina tudi Mycoad® plus, bistveno viÅ¡ja kot pri piÅ¡Äancih, krmljenih samo z aflatoksinom. NaÅ¡i rezultati kažejo, da vsebnost aflatoksina v krmi piÅ¡Äancev vpliva na lokalni imunski odziv sluznic zgornjih dihalnih poti in na uÄinkovitost sistemskega imunskega odziva. Dodatek Mycoad® h krmi, onesnaženi z aflatoksini, lahko zmanjÅ¡a neželene uÄinke aflatoksina na uspeÅ¡nost cepljenj pri piÅ¡Äancih.

KljuÄne besede: aflatoksin; piÅ¡Äanci; imunost; Mycoad®

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