EQUINE LEPTOSPIROSIS IN EGYPT: SEROPREVALENCE AND RISK FACTORS

Authors

  • Mohamed Marzok * Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, King Faisal University, Al-Hofuf, 31982, Saudi Arabia; Department of Surgery, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kafr El Sheikh University, Kafr El Sheikh, Egypt, mmarzok@kfu.edu.sa
  • Abdelrahman M. Hereba Department of Biomedical Physics, Medical Research Institute, Alexandria University, Egypt; Department of Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa 31982, Saudi Arabia
  • Abdelfattah Selim * Department of Animal Medicine (Infectious Diseases), Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Benha University, Toukh 13736, Egypt, abdelfattah.selim@fvtm.bu.edu.eg

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.26873/SVR-1716-2023

Keywords:

Leptospirosis, seroprevalence, risk factors, horse, Egypt

Abstract

Most leptospiral infections in horses are asymptomatic; however, acute disease manifestations as well as reproductive failure and recurrent uveitis have been reported. Horses are considered accidental hosts. The data about equine leptospirosis in Egypt are scarce. Hence, the present study aimed to investigate presence of antibodies against Leptospira sp. in horse in four Egyptian governorates and determine the associated risk factors for the infection. To determine the seroprevalence in 305 serum samples, the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) was carried using eight Leptospira servoars antigens. The results revealed 104 animals were positive for at least one of the serovars (34.1 %; 95 % CI: 29.01 - 39.59). The most common reaction was reported to Icterohaemorrhagiae servoar (15.14 %), followed by Canicola (14.75 %), Bratislava (11.47 %), Copenhageni (8.19 %), Pomona (7.86 %), and Hardjo (6.88 %). The most prevalent was observed among females, older, horses raising in pasture or in contact with ruminants or dogs and lack of rodent’s control. The significant seroprevalence suggests that Egyptian horses living in the studied area are at high risk of infection or exposure by Leptospira sp. Thus, the establishment of emergency surveillance and control program is very crucial for this zoonotic pathogen.

LEPTOSPIROZA KONJ V EGIPTU: SEROPREVALENCA IN DEJAVNIKI TVEGANJA

Izvleček: Večina leptospiroz pri konjih je asimptomatskih, vendar obstajajo poročanja o akutnih bolezenskih znakih, reprodukcijskih motnjah in ponavljajočih se uveitisih. Konji veljajo za naključne gostitelje. Podatki o leptospirozi konj v Egiptu so pomanjkljivi. Zato je bil namen te študije raziskati prisotnost protiteles proti bakteriji Leptospira sp. pri konjih v štirih egiptovskih pokrajinah in določiti z njimi povezane dejavnike tveganja za okužbo. Za določitev seroprevalence v 305 vzorcih seruma je bil opravljen mikroskopski aglutinacijski test (MAT) z osmimi antigeni serovara Leptospira. Rezultati so pokazali, da so bile 104 živali pozitivne na vsaj enega od serovarov (34,1 %; 95-odstotni indeks: 29,01–39,59). Najpogostejša reakcija je bila na serovar Icterohaemorrhagiae (15,14 %), sledili so Canicola (14,75  %), Bratislava (11,47 %), Copenhageni (8,19 %), Pomona (7,86 %) in Hardjo (6,88 %). Najpogostejše so bile pri kobilah, starejših konjih, konjih, ki se redijo na pašnikih ali so v stiku s prežvekovalci ali psi in pri pomanjkanju nadzora nad glodavci. Velika seroprevalenca kaže, da so egiptovski konji, ki živijo na proučevanem območju, izpostavljeni velikemu tveganju za okužbo z bakterijo Leptospira sp. Zato je za ta zoonotski patogen zelo pomembna vzpostavitev programa nujnega nadzora in obvladovanja. 

Ključne besede: leptospiroza; seroprevalenca; dejavniki tveganja; konj; Egipt

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Published

2023-05-18

How to Cite

Marzok, M., Hereba, A. M., & Selim, A. (2023). EQUINE LEPTOSPIROSIS IN EGYPT: SEROPREVALENCE AND RISK FACTORS. Slovenian Veterinary Research, 60(2), 95–103. https://doi.org/10.26873/SVR-1716-2023

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Original Research Article