• Maged Mostafa Mahmoud King Fahd Medical Research Center, P.O. Box 80216, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, 21589, Saudi Arabia; Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, 21589, Saudi Arabia; Molecular Genetics and Enzymology Department, Human Genetics and Genome Research Institute, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt
  • Ahmed Mahmoud Al-Hejin Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, P.O. Box 80203, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, 21589, Saudi Arabia; Microbiology level 2 laboratory, King Fahd Medical Research Center, P.O. Box 80216, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, 21589, Saudi Arabia
  • Ali Meawad Ahmed Departments of food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Suez Canal University, Egypt
  • Ahmed M. Elazzazy Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Jeddah, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; Department of Chemistry of Natural and Microbial Products, Pharmaceutical and Drug Industries Institute, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza 12622, Egypt




histamine, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, molecular identification, scombroid, Staphylococcus xylosus


Histamine is the biogenic amine responsible for scombroid poisoning in various types of fish and fish products. The study evaluated histamine content and bacteriological quality of salted and freeze sardine samples. All fish samples were cultured on Reinforced Closterdial medium; mannitol salt (MS) agar and violet red bile glucose (VRBG) agar, the positive colonies were sub-cultured on histamine-forming bacterium agar, followed by biochemical and PCR identification. Production of histamine in the fish muscles was measured by high performance liquid chromatography. The mean histamine values were about; 8.25 mg/100g. The mean of total aerobic counts was; 4×104 ± 2.1×104 while, the total anaerobic count; 5×104 ±1.2×103 Log CFU/g. Enterobacteriacea spp. about; 5×104 ±2.5×104 Log CFU/g while, the mean value of Staphylococcus spp. about; 3×104 ±3.7×104 Log CFU/g. The mean value of histamine-forming bacterial were; 3.3×106 Log CFU/g. Molecular Identification For Enterobacteriaceae were Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus xylosus, Escherichia coli and Enterobacter cloacae. We concluded that during storage, there was a positive relationship between the histamine levels and the histamine-forming bacteria (HFB) numbers, while, histamine and the bacteria forming histamine were recorded in all examined sardine samples.

Key words: histamine; Escherichia coli; Klebsiella pneumonia; molecular identification; scombroid; Staphylococcus xylosus


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How to Cite

Mahmoud, M. M., Al-Hejin, A. M., Ahmed, A. M., & Elazzazy, A. M. (2023). HISTAMINE LEVEL AND HISTAMINE-PRODUCING BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM SALTED AND FREEZE SARDINE FISH (Sardina spp.). SLOVENIAN VETERINARY RESEARCH, 60(25-Suppl). https://doi.org/10.26873/SVR-1633-2022



Veterinary Medicine and The One Health Concept