• Zarroug H. Ibrahim Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Qassim University, Saudi Arabia; Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Sudan University of Science and Technology, Khartoum, Sudan
  • Tariq I. Almundarij Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Qassim University, Saudi Arabia



dromedary camel stomach, morphology, desert habitat


Dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) are adapted to their desert habitat where they are able to survive and reproduce despite very high temperatures, little vegetation, and limited water availability. The mechanism of thermoregulation in camels is highly efficient, which makes them maintain the appropriate body temperature to carry out their physiological activities. Compared to other mammals, camels are environmentally tolerant as they can be bred for milk and meat production in areas with scant natural resources depending on their unique physiological, anatomical and behavioral characteristics. The camel's digestive system has unique morphological features that make it highly adapted to its natural environment. Although the stomach of camels is divided into compartments, as in ruminants, they are referred to as pseudo-ruminants because they do not have the clearly divided four-chambered stomach found in true ruminants. However, their stomach is larger and more efficient in dealing with dry, tough, and fibrous food. Therefore, the current study aimed to review the gross anatomical and histological peculiarities and characteristic features of the dromedary camel stomach with respect to their physiological importance. The morphological characterization of the dromedary camel stomach might elucidate the functions of its different compartments. Thus, this review could add to our understanding of the physiology of the digestive system in dromedary camels.


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Veterinary Medicine and The One Health Concept