PREVALENCE OF MULTIDRUG RESISTANT SHIGA TOXIN PRODUCING E. coli IN THE MILK OF CATTLE, BUFFALOES, AND CAMEL

Authors

  • Abdullah F. Alsayeqh Veterinary Medicine, College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Qassim University 6622, Buraidah, 51452, Saudi Arabia
  • Asmaa S. M. Mohamed Food Control Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44519, Egypt
  • Rehab E. Mohamed Department of Zoonoses, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University 44519, Egypt
  • Nermin Awad Ibrahim Department of Bacteriology, Mycology, and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Mansoura University, Egypt
  • Eman Hamdy 5Food Hygiene Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Damanhour University, Egypt
  • Mohamed E. Alnakip Food Control Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44519, Egypt

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.26873/SVR-1599-2022

Keywords:

phenotypic, genotypic, molecular, fungi, poultry

Abstract

Regarding high morbidity, mortality, and production losses, fungi infections have their importance among infectious illnesses and seem to be one of the main challenges facing poultry producers. This study aims to identify the genotypic characteristics of some fungi isolated from poultry. To reach this end, in El-Gharbia Governorate, Egypt, a total of 210 birds with a history of respiratory distress were randomly selected from a variety of private farms and hatcheries. The birds were sacrificed; tissue pieces were collected. In addition, a total of 87 samples of the poultry surroundings including 40 samples of poultry ration, 14 bedding materials, 4 air samples, and 29 water samples were collected. Using traditional fungal isolation, four fungal species were recovered, namely, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Cladosporium perangustum, and Penicillium chrysogenum. PCR was performed by fungus-specific universal primer pairs (ITS1 and ITS4) to identify and describe the genotype of isolated fungi. All examined isolates' ITS1-5.8SrDNA regions could be amplified. A purified PCR product was sequenced according to the Emerald Amp GT PCR master mix. This was initially performed to establish sequence identity to GenBank accession numbers. The rRNA gene for 5.8 sRNA divides the two ITS sections, which are situated between the 18S and 28S rRNA genes. ITS-1 gene sequence of the isolated Cladosporium perangustum (GeneBank accession number was OM 407392). The Sequence of the ITS-1 of isolated Penicillium chrysogenum (GeneBank accession numbers for studied nucleotide sequences were OM407401; OM407402; OM403685, and OM403686). For the examined nucleotide sequences, the GeneBank accession number for the ITS-1 internal transcribed spacer region of single Aspergillus niger was OM407391. GeneBank accession numbers for the isolated Aspergillus flavus ITS-1 sequence examined nucleotide sequences were OM403676, OM403677, and OM403678. In conclusion, genotypic characterization confirmed the phenotypic traditional fungal identification in the present study.  Aspergillus species are the major fungi associated with birds in Egypt farms. The predominantly identified species were Aspergillus flavus and Penicillium chrysogenum.

Key words: phenotypic; genotypic; molecular; fungi; poultry

References

● 1. Wu JP, Ding XL. Characterization of inhibitory and stability of soy protein-derived angiotensin-I-converting enzyme inhibitory peptides. Food Res Int 2002; 35: 367–75.

● 2. Borad SG, Kumar A, Singh AK. Effect of processing on nutritive values of milk protein. Cri Rev Food Sci Nutr 2017; 57(17): 3690–702.

● 3. Yadav AK, Kumar R, Priyadarshini L, Singh J. Composition and medicinal properties of camel milk: A Review. Asian J Dairy Food Res 2015; 34(2): 83–91.

● 4. Elafify M, Khalifa HO, Al-Ashmawy M, Elsherbini M, El Latif AA, Okanda T, Matsumoto T, Koseki S, Abdelkhalek A. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in milk and dairy products in Egypt. J Environ Sci Health B 2020; 55(3): 265–72.

● 5. Grace D, Wu F, Havelaar AH. MILK Symposium review: Foodborne diseases from milk and milk products in developing countries—Review of causes and health and economic implications. J Dairy Sci 2020; 103(11): 9715–29.

● 6. Aberle ED, Forrest JC, Gerrard DE, Mills EW. Principles of Meat Science. 4th Ed., Kendall/ Hunt Publishing Co., Dubuque, IA. 2001.

● 7. Xia X, Meng J, McDermott PF, Ayers S, et al. Presence and characterization of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli and other potentially diarrheagenic E. coli strains in retail meats. Appl Environ Microbiol 2010; 76(6): 1709–17. DOI: 10.1128/AEM.01968-09.

● 8. Darwish WS, Saad Eldin WF, Eldesoky KI. Prevalence, molecular characterization and antibiotic susceptibility of Escherichia coli isolated from duck meat and giblets. J Food Safety 2015; 35: 410–15.

● 9. Scallan E, Hoekstra RM, Angulo FJ, et al. Foodborne illness acquired in the United States--major pathogens. Emerg Infect Dis 2011; 17(1): 7–15. DOI: 10.3201/eid1701.p11101.

● 10. Alsayeqh AF, Baz AHA, Darwish WS. Antimicrobial-resistant foodborne pathogens in the Middle East: A systematic review. Environ Sci Pollut Res 2021; 1–23.

● 11. Darwish WS, Eldaly EA, El-Abbasy MT, et al. Antibiotic residues in food: the African scenario. Jpn J Vet Res 2013; 61(Supplement): S13–22.

● 12. American Public Health Association (APHA). Compendium of methods for the microbiological examination of food, 4th Ed. American Public Health Association, Washington, D.C. 2001.

● 13. Kok T, Worswich D, Gowans E. Some serological techniques for microbial and viral infections. In Practical Medical Microbiology (Collee, J.; Fraser, A.; Marmion, B. and Simmons, A., eds.), 14th ed., Edinburgh, Churchill Livingstone, UK. 1996.

● 14. Dhanashree B, Mallya S. Detection of shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) in diarrhoeagenic stool and meat samples in Mangalore, India. Indian J Med Res 2008; 128: 271–7.

● 15. Aal AE, Salah FA, Mohamed A, Mohamed AS. Experimental trials for reducing biofilm-producing Escherichia coli using Nigella sativa and olive oils’ nanoemulsions. Slov Vet Res 2021; 58: 323–9.

● 16. Wayne P. Performance standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. CLSI approved standard M100–S23. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute 2013; 33; 118–56.

● 17. Singh S, Yadav AS, Singh SM, Bharti P. Prevalence of Salmonella in chicken eggs collected from poultry farms and marketing channels and their antimicrobial resistance. Food Res Inter 2010; 43(8): 2027–30.

● 18. Wernery U. Camel milk, the white gold of the desert. J Camel Practice Res 2006; 13(1): 15–26.

● 19. Mohammed H, Hailu S, Geberegiorgis A, et al. Assessment on Safety Status of Camel Raw Milk Marketed in Samara-Logia Town of Afar National Regional State, Northeast Ethiopia. Food Sci Quality Manag 2016; 49: 80–8.

● 20. Altalhi AD, Hassan SA. Bacterial quality of raw milk investigated by Escherichia coli and isolates analysis for specific virulence-gene markers. Food Control 2009; 20(10): 913–7.

● 21. Chye FY, Abdullah A, Ayob MK. Bacteriological quality and safety of raw milk in Malaysia. Food Microbiol 2004; 21(5): 535–41.

● 22. Fadaei A. Bacteriological quality of raw cow milk in Shahrekord, Iran. Vet World 2014; 7(4): 240-–3.

● 23. Ahmed SA, Mostafa AHM, El-Sherbini M, Abdelkhalek A. Assessment of Microbial Safety and Quality of Market Raw Milk and Pasteurized Milk Sold in Dakahlia Governorate, Egypt. J Adv Vet Res 2022; 12(4): 456–61.

● 24. Denny J, Bhat M, Eckmann K. Outbreak of Escherichia coli O157: H7 associated with raw milk consumption in the Pacific Northwest. Foodborne Pathog Dis 2008; 5(3): 321–8.

● 25. Baylis CL. Raw milk and raw milk cheeses as vehicles for infection by Verocytotoxin‐producing Escherichia coli. Inter J Dairy Technol 2009; 62(3): 293–307.

● 26. de Campos ACLP, Puño-Sarmiento JJ, Medeiros LP, et al. Virulence Genes and Antimicrobial Resistance in Escherichia coli from Cheese Made from Unpasteurized Milk in Brazil. Foodborne Pathog Dis 2018; 15(2): 94–100. doi: 10.1089/fpd.2017.2345.

● 27. Ombarak RA, Hinenoya A, Awasthi SP, et al. Prevalence and pathogenic potential of Escherichia coli isolates from raw milk and raw milk cheese in Egypt. Inter J Food Microbiol 2016; 221: 69–76. doi: 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2016.01.009.

● 28. Tabaran A, Mihaiu M, Tăbăran F, et al. First study on characterization of virulence and antibiotic resistance genes in verotoxigenic and enterotoxigenic E. coli isolated from raw milk and unpasteurized traditional cheeses in Romania. Folia Microbiologica (Praha) 2017; 62(2): 145–50. doi: 10.1007/s12223-016-0481-8.

Published

2023-02-26

How to Cite

Abdullah F. Alsayeqh, Asmaa S. M. Mohamed, Rehab E. Mohamed, Nermin Awad Ibrahim, Eman Hamdy, & Mohamed E. Alnakip. (2023). PREVALENCE OF MULTIDRUG RESISTANT SHIGA TOXIN PRODUCING E. coli IN THE MILK OF CATTLE, BUFFALOES, AND CAMEL. SLOVENIAN VETERINARY RESEARCH, 60(25-Suppl). https://doi.org/10.26873/SVR-1599-2022

Issue

Section

Veterinary Medicine and The One Health Concept