CHICKEN AIR SACS AND MESENTERY: A HISTOMORPHOMETRICAL AND IMMUNOLOGICAL STUDY
Keywords:air sacs, chicken, fat-associated lymphoid clusters, air sacculitis, mesenteritis
Fat-associated lymphoid clusters (FALCs) are novel lymphoid tissues that have been reported in the mesenteric and mediastinal fat tissue of mouse and human. It plays role in the progression of respiratory and intestinal inflammation and parasitic infestations. However, their occurrence in the chicken air sacs and mesenteric adipose tissue has not yet been identified. Here we investigated the occurrence and distribution of FALCs in the air sacs (cervical, clavicular, thoracic, and abdominal) and mesenteric adipose tissue of healthy chicken. The latter air sacs and mesentery were immediately harvested after anesthesia and cutting the chicken heads then fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde fixative solution for histopathological examination. The degree of FALCs development among different specimens was measured and statistically analyzed. Our results revealed lymphoid clusters associating with the adipose tissues in mesentery, and air sacs (clavicular, thoracic, and abdominal), but not the cervical one. Interestingly, the thoracic air sacs showed significant higher FALCs size in comparison to that of other air sac types and the mesentery. Our findings suggested other possible immunological role of the air sacs and mesentery that could have impact on the progression of air sacculitis and mesenteritis- associate diseases. However, further investigations are required for clarification of air sacs and mesenteric FALCs in the progressions of respiratory and digestive tract diseases.
● 1. Moro K, Yamada T, Tanabe M, Takeuchi T, Ikawa T, Kawamoto H, et al. Innate production of TH2 cytokines by adipose tissue-associated c-Kit+Sca-1+ lymphoid cells. Nature 2010; 463: 540–4.
● 2. Bénézech C, Luu N-T, Walker JA, Kruglov AA, Loo Y, Nakamura K, et al. Inflammation-induced formation of fat-associated lymphoid clusters. Nature Immunology 2015; 16: 819–28.
● 3. Elewa YH, Ichii O, Otsuka S, Hashimoto Y, Kon Y. Characterization of mouse mediastinal fat-associated lymphoid clusters. Cell Tissue Res 2014; 357: 731–41.
● 4. 4.Bénézech C, Luu NT, Walker JA, Kruglov AA, Loo Y, Nakamura K, et al. Inflammation-induced formation of fat-associated lymphoid clusters. Nat Immunol 2015; 16: 819–28.
● 5. Elewa YHA, Ichii O, Takada K, Nakamura T, Masum MA, Kon Y. Histopathological Correlations between Mediastinal Fat-Associated Lymphoid Clusters and the Development of Lung Inflammation and Fibrosis following Bleomycin Administration in Mice. Front Immunol 2018; 9: 271.
● 6. Jackson-Jones LH, Duncan SM, Magalhaes MS, Campbell SM, Maizels RM, McSorley HJ, et al. Fat-associated lymphoid clusters control local IgM secretion during pleural infection and lung inflammation. Nat Commun 2016; 7: 12651.
● 7. Leavy O. 'Natural helper' cells identified. Nature Reviews Immunology 2010; 85: 10.
● 8. Boonyarattanasoonthorn T, Elewa YHA, Tag-El-Din-Hassan HT, Morimatsu M, Agui T. Profiling of cellular immune responses to Mycoplasma pulmonis infection in C57BL/6 and DBA/2 mice. Infection, Genetics and Evolution 2019; 73: 55–65.
● 9. Maina JN, King A, Settle G. An allometric study of pulmonary morphometric parameters in birds, with mammalian comparisons. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B, Biological Sciences 1989; 326: 1-57.
● 10. Lasiewski RC, Calder Jr WA. A preliminary allometric analysis of respiratory variables in resting birds. Respiration physiology 1971; 11: 152–66.
● 11. Williams CL, Czapanskiy MF, John JS, St Leger J, Scadeng M, Ponganis PJ. Cervical air sac oxygen profiles in diving emperor penguins: parabronchial ventilation and the respiratory oxygen store. J Exp Biol 2021; 224.
● 12. Fedde M. Relationship of structure and function of the avian respiratory system to disease susceptibility. Poultry science 1998; 77: 1130–8.
● 13. Maina JN. Development, structure, and function of a novel respiratory organ, the lung-air sac system of birds: to go where no other vertebrate has gone. Biological Reviews 2006; 81: 545–79.
● 14. Sawad AAH, Udah DA, editors. Morphological and histopathological study of Air Sacs (Sacci pneumatic) in Japanese Quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica)2012.
● 15. Larrat S, Locke S, Dallaire AD, Fitzgerald G, Marcogliese DJ, Lair S. Fatal aerosacculitis and pneumonia associated with Eucoleus sp. (nematoda: capillaridae) in the lungs of a Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus). J Wildl Dis 2012; 48: 832–4.
● 16. Elewa YHA, Ichii O, Mohamed SKA, Kon Y. Histopathological Impact of Bleomycin on Lung Injury and Development of Mediastinal Fat-Associated Lymphoid Clusters in the Lymphoproliferative Mouse Model. Microsc Microanal 2022: 1–15.
● 17. John M. Functional morphology of the avian respiratory system, the lung-air sac system: Efficiency built on complexity. Ostrich: Journal of African Ornithology 2009; 79: 117–32.
● 18. Powell FL, Hopkins SR. Comparative Physiology of Lung Complexity: Implications for Gas Exchange. Physiology. 2004; 19: 55–60.
● 19. Brown R, Kovacs C, Butler J, Wang N, Lehr J, Banzett R. The avian lung: is there an aerodynamic expiratory valve? The Journal of experimental biology 1995; 198: 2349–57.
● 20. Duncker H-R. The lung air sac system of birds: A contribution to the functional anatomy of the respiratory apparatus: Springer Science & Business Media 2013.
● 21. O'Connor PM. Postcranial pneumaticity: An evaluation of soft-tissue influences on the postcranial skeleton and the reconstruction of pulmonary anatomy in archosaurs. Journal of Morphology 2006; 267: 1199–226.
● 22. McLelland J. Anatomy of the lungs and air sacs. Form and function in birds 1989; 4: 221–79.
● 23. Grimes TMG, Rosenfeld LE. EXPERIMENTAL RESPIRATORY DISEASE AND AIRSACCULITIS IN FOWLS CAUSED BY MYCOPLASMA GALLISEPTICUM. Australian Veterinary Journal 1972; 48: 113–6.
● 24. Sharif A, Ahmad T, Umer M, Rehman A, Hussain Z. Prevention and control of Newcastle disease. International Journal of Agriculture Innovations and Research 2014; 3: 454–60.
● 25. Ewers C, Janßen T, Wieler LH. Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC). Berliner und Munchener tierarztliche Wochenschrift. 2003; 116: 381–95.
● 26. Samy A, Naguib MM. Avian respiratory coinfection and impact on avian influenza pathogenicity in domestic poultry: field and experimental findings. Veterinary sciences 2018; 5: 23.
● 27. Halvorson DA, Frame DD, Friendshuh KA, Shaw DP. Outbreaks of low pathogenicity avian influenza in USA. Avian diseases. 2003: 36–46.
● 28. Madian K, El-Ghany W, KAMEL GM, editors. Efficacy of pefloxacin for the treatment of broiler chickens experimentally infected with Escherichia coli O78: K80. Proceeding of the 3rd Scientific Congress of the Egyptian Society for Animal Management October, 28th–29th; 2008.
● 29. Ross MJ. Special Structural Features in the Air-Sacs of Birds. Transactions of the American Microscopical Society 1898; 20: 29–40.
● 30. El-Sayed AK, Hassan S. Gross morphological features of the air sacs of the hooded crow (Corvus cornix). Anat Histol Embryol 2020; 49: 159–66.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2023 SLOVENIAN VETERINARY RESEARCH
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.