EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS VACCINATION REGIMES AGAINST CHALLENGE WITH RECENTLY ISOLATED GENOTYPE VII VIRUS FROM EGYPT
Keywords:Newcastle disease virus, genotype VII, virus shedding, vaccine programs
Newcastle disease virus (NDV) genotype VII is incriminated in the currently circulating NDV outbreaks in the Middle East region. In this study, evaluation of different vaccination regimes including genetically-matched or mismatched vaccines to the currently circulating field virulent NDV (vNDV) genotype VII was performed. One-day-old Arbor Acres broiler chicks were divided into nine groups; groups 1 to 3 were vaccinated with live or inactivated genetic-mismatched vaccines (genotype II) or both of them. Groups 4 to 6 were vaccinated with either live or inactivated genetic-matched vaccine to vNDV genotype VII or combination of them. Group (Gp) 7 was vaccinated with a combination of inactivated genetic-matched and live genetic-mismatched vaccines to vNDV genotype VII while groups 8 and 9 were kept as control non-vaccinated. The groups that received a combination of live and inactivated vaccines from either genetically-matched or mismatched origins had the highest serological responses and protection against mortality which was 100%. The two groups received a combination of inactivated genetic matched vaccine and live vaccines of either genetic-matched or mismatched origins had the lowest clinical index and were nearly completely protected against vNDV clinical signs. The virus tracheal and cloacal shedding titers and number of shedders were significantly reduced or nearly neglicable in the instance of application of inactivated genetic-matched vaccine to the challenge virus either alone or boosted with live genetic-matched or mismatched vaccine. In consistent inactivated genetic-matched vaccine inhibited the transmissibility of the challenged virus to contacted birds. We concluded from our results that application of NDV vaccination regimes included a combination of inactivated NDV genotype VII vaccine and live vaccine regardless of its genotype provides better clinical protection and minimize virus shedding and subsequently decrease transmissibility and virus load to the surrounding environment.
● 1. Mohamed MH, Kumar S, Paldurai A, Samal SK. Sequence analysis of fusion protein gene of Newcastle disease virus isolated from outbreaks in Egypt during 2006. Virol J 2011; 8: 237.
● 2. Kayali G, Kandeil A, El-Shesheny R, et al. Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Virus in Egypt. Emerg Infect Dis 2016; 22: 379–88.
● 3. Abozeid HH, Naguib MM. Infectious Bronchitis Virus in Egypt: Genetic Diversity and Vaccination Strategies. Vet Sci 2020; 7.
● 4. Ali A, Elmowalid G, Abdel-Glil M, et al. Etiology and pathology of epidemic outbreaks of avian influenza H5N1 infection in Egyptian chicken farms. Pol J Vet Sci 2015; 18: 779–86.
● 5. OIE, Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals-Avian Influenza: OIE Terrestrial Manual. 2015.
● 6. Daubney R, Mansy W. The occurrence of Newcastle disease in Egypt. J Comp Pathol Ther 1948; 58: 189–200.
● 7. Miller P, Koch G. Newcastle Disease. In: J Glisson, et al., Editors. Book Title|. Place Published: Ames, IA:Wiley-Blackwell in partnership with the American Association of Avian Pathologist, 2013: 89–138.
● 8. Walker PJ, Siddell SG, Lefkowitz EJ, et al. Changes to virus taxonomy and the Statutes ratified by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (2020). Archives of Virology 2020; 165: 2737–48.
● 9. Dimitrov KM, Abolnik C, Afonso CL, et al. Updated unified phylogenetic classification system and revised nomen-clature for Newcastle disease virus. Infect Genet Evol 2019; 74: 103917.
● 10. Miller PJ, Kim LM, Ip HS, Afonso CL. Evolutionary dynamics of Newcastle disease virus. Virology 2009; 391: 64–72.
● 11. Megahed M, Mohamed W, Hassanin O. A complex genetic diversity of newcastle disease virus (ndv) in africa con-tinent: an updated review. Journal of Animal Health and Production 2020; 9(1): 97–109.
● 12. Desingu PA, Singh SD, Dhama K, Kumar OR, Malik YS, Singh R. Clinicopathological characterization of experi-mental infection in chickens with sub-genotype VIIi Newcastle disease virus isolated from peafowl. Microb Pathog 2017; 105: 8-12.
● 13. Miller PJ, King DJ, Afonso CL, Suarez DL. Antigenic differences among Newcastle disease virus strains of differ-ent genotypes used in vaccine formulation affect viral shedding after a virulent challenge. Vaccine 2007; 25: 7238–46.
● 14. Diel DG, da Silva LH, Liu H, Wang Z, Miller PJ, Afonso CL. Genetic diversity of avian paramyxovirus type 1: pro-posal for a unified nomenclature and classification system of Newcastle disease virus genotypes. Infect Genet Evol 2012; 12: 1770–9.
● 15. Rehmani SF, Wajid A, Bibi T, et al. Presence of virulent Newcastle disease virus in vaccinated chickens in farms in Pakistan. J Clin Microbiol 2015; 53: 1715–8.
● 16. Radwan MM, Darwish SF, El-Sabagh IM, El-Sanousi AA, Shalaby MA. Isolation and molecular characterization of Newcastle disease virus genotypes II and VIId in Egypt between 2011 and 2012. Virus Genes 2013; 47: 311–6.
● 17. Megahed MM, Eid AAM, Mohamed W, Hassanin O. Genetic characterization of Egyptian Newcastle disease virus strains isolated from flocks vaccinated against Newcastle disease virus, 2014-2015. Slov Vet Res 2018; 55 17–29.
● 18. Naguib MM, Höper D, Elkady MF, et al. Comparison of genomic and antigenic properties of Newcastle Disease virus genotypes II, XXI and VII from Egypt do not point to antigenic drift as selection marker. Transbound Emerg Dis 2022; 69: 849–63.
● 19. Ahmed HM, Amer MM, El-bayoumi k, Amer sA, Kutkat maea. Identification and sequencing of Genotype VII of Newcastle disease virus from chicken flocks in six Egyptian Governorates. Egyptian Journal of Veterinary Sciences 2017; 48: 31–41.
● 20. Ewies SS, Ali A, Tamam SM, Madbouly HM. Molecular characterization of Newcastle disease virus (genotype VII) from broiler chickens in Egypt. Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences 2017; 6: 232–7.
● 21. Hu Z, Hu S, Meng C, Wang X, Zhu J, Liu X. Generation of a genotype VII Newcastle disease virus vaccine candi-date with high yield in embryonated chicken eggs. Avian Dis 2011; 55: 391–7.
● 22. Yang HM, Zhao J, Xue J, Yang YL, Zhang GZ. Antigenic variation of LaSota and genotype VII Newcastle dis-ease virus (NDV) and their efficacy against challenge with velogenic NDV. Vaccine 2017; 35: 27–32.
● 23. Sultan HA, Elfeil WK, Nour AA, et al. Efficacy of the Newcastle Disease Virus Genotype VII.1.1-Matched Vac-cines in Commercial Broilers. Vaccines (Basel) 2021; 10.
● 24. Grund C, Steglich C, Huthmann E, Beer M, Mettenleiter TC, Römer-Oberdörfer A. Avian paramyoxvirus-8 im-munization reduces viral shedding after homologous APMV-8 challenge but fails to protect against Newcastle disease. Virol J 2014; 11: 179.
● 25. Bello MB, Yusoff K, Ideris A, Hair-Bejo M, Peeters BPH, Omar AR. Diagnostic and Vaccination Approaches for Newcastle Disease Virus in Poultry: The Current and Emerging Perspectives. Biomed Res Int 2018; 2018: 7278459.
● 26. Kapczynski DR, Afonso CL, Miller PJ. Immune responses of poultry to Newcastle disease virus. Dev Comp Im-munol 2013; 41: 447–53.
● 27. Sultan HA, Talaat S, Elfeil WK, et al. Protective efficacy of the Newcastle disease virus genotype VII–matched vac-cine in commercial layers. Poultry Science 2020; 99: 1275–86.
● 28. El-Morshidy Y, Abdo W, Elmahallawy EK, et al. Pathogenesis of Velogenic Genotype VII.1.1 Newcastle Disease Virus Isolated from Chicken in Egypt via Different Inoculation Routes: Molecular, Histopathological, and Immunohisto-chemical Study. Animals (Basel) 2021; 11.
● 29. Wang JY, Liu WH, Ren JJ, et al. Characterization of emerging Newcastle disease virus isolates in China. Virol J 2015; 12: 119.
● 30. Cho SH, Kwon HJ, Kim TE, et al. Characterization of a recombinant Newcastle disease virus vaccine strain. Clin Vaccine Immunol 2008; 15: 1572–9.
● 31. Kapczynski DR ,King DJ. Protection of chickens against overt clinical disease and determination of viral shedding following vaccination with commercially available Newcastle disease virus vaccines upon challenge with highly virulent virus from the California 2002 exotic Newcastle disease outbreak. Vaccine 2005; 23: 3424–33.
● 32. Al-Garib SO, Gielkens ALJ, Gruys E, Kochi G. Review of Newcastle disease virus with particular references to immunity and vaccination. World's Poultry Science Journal 2003; 59: 185–200.
● 33. van Boven M, Bouma A, Fabri TH, Katsma E, Hartog L, Koch G. Herd immunity to Newcastle disease virus in poultry by vaccination. Avian Pathol 2008; 37: 1–5.
● 34. Aljumaili OA, Bello MB, Yeap SK, Omar AR, Ideris A. Protective efficacy of inactivated Newcastle disease virus vaccines prepared in two different oil-based adjuvants. Onderstepoort J Vet Res 2020; 87: e1-e7.
● 35. Palya V, Kiss I, Tatár-Kis T, Mató T, Felföldi B, Gardin Y. Advancement in vaccination against Newcastle disease: recombinant HVT NDV provides high clinical protection and reduces challenge virus shedding with the absence of vaccine reactions. Avian Dis 2012; 56: 282–7.
● 36. Wajid A, Basharat A, Bibi T, Rehmani SF. Comparison of protection and viral shedding following vaccination with Newcastle disease virus strains of different genotypes used in vaccine formulation. Trop Anim Health Prod 2018; 50: 1645–51.
● 37. Absalón AE, Cortés-Espinosa DV, Lucio E, Miller PJ, Afonso CL. Epidemiology, control, and prevention of Newcastle disease in endemic regions: Latin America. Trop Anim Health Prod 2019; 51: 1033–48.
● 38. Hu S, Ma H, Wu Y, et al. A vaccine candidate of attenuated genotype VII Newcastle disease virus generated by re-verse genetics. Vaccine 2009; 27: 904–10.
● 39. M SES, Susta L, Moresco K, Swayne DE. Vaccination of chickens decreased Newcastle disease virus contamina-tion in eggs. Avian Pathol 2016; 45: 38–45.
● 40. Mahmoud NK, El-Deeb AH, Emara MM, Abd El-Khaleck MA, Hussein HA. Genotypes II and VIId-based in-activated Newcastle disease vaccine reduces virus shedding. Virusdisease 2019; 30: 453–61.
● 41. Roohani K, Tan SW, Yeap SK, Ideris A, Bejo MH, Omar AR. Characterisation of genotype VII Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolated from NDV vaccinated chickens, and the efficacy of LaSota and recombinant genotype VII vaccines against challenge with velogenic NDV. J Vet Sci 2015; 16: 447–57.
● 42. Miller PJ, Afonso CL, El Attrache J, et al. Effects of Newcastle disease virus vaccine antibodies on the shedding and transmission of challenge viruses. Developmental & Comparative Immunology 2013; 41: 505–13.
● 43. Alexander DJ, Manvell RJ, Banks J, et al. Experimental assessment of the pathogenicity of the Newcastle disease viruses from outbreaks in Great Britain in 1997 for chickens and turkeys, and the protection afforded by vaccination. Avian Pathol 1999; 28: 501–11.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2023 SLOVENIAN VETERINARY RESEARCH
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.