ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHY, ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, AND VERTEBRAL HEART SCORE IN HEALTHY LOCAL EGYPTIAN MALE DOGS: BIAS CORRECTED BOOTSTRAP REFERENCE INTERVALS
The Egyptian domestic (Baladi) dog has been increasingly adopted as a companion animal. Breed-specific cardiovascular reference intervals (RIs) are useful for clinicians in identifying abnormalities. The study aimed to estimate RIs for different heart indices in healthy male Baladi dogs. Twenty-six dogs were recruited to the study. Dogs were approved to be healthy. Afterwards, they were consciously examined by electrocardiography, echocardiography, and radiography. RIs were estimated using a bias-corrected bootstrapping approach. Electrocardiographic RIs were heart rate: 103 – 132 (beats/minute); P: 0.02 - 0.04, T: 0.03 - 0.04 waves durations (seconds); P: 0.13 - 0.23, R: 1.19 - 1.51, T: 0.20 - 0.27 waves amplitudes (mV); and PR: 0.11 - 0.17, QRS: 0.06 - 0.08, QT: 0.41 - 0.44 intervals (seconds). Echocardiographic parameters included end (diastolic: 29.95 - 46.49, systolic: 5.54 - 10.32) volumes (ml); ejection fraction: 76.23 - 83.41 (%); stroke volume 25.13 - 37.41 (ml); fractional shortening: 0.43 - 0.51 (%); interventricular septal thickness (diastole: 7.61 - 8.55; systole: 12.19 - 14.12 mm); left atrial to aortic root ratio (0.98 - 1.06); left ventricular diameter (diastole: 27.86 - 33.34, systole:14.42 - 18.14 mm) and left ventricular posterior wall thickness (diastole: 9.71 - 13.5; systole: 14.73 - 18.33 mm). Right lateral radiographs heart axes (long: 5.31 - 5.67, short 3.67 - 4.03 vertebrae) and VHS: 9.04 - 9.64 (vertebrae). No significant associations were identified between the measurements and body weight, age, and heart rate. In conclusions our results emphasized the importance of establishing Baladi‐specific RIs.
Keywords: Baladi dogs; cardiac indices; ECG; VHS; heart.