EPIDEMIOLOGY AND STATUS OF PORCINE REPRODUCTIVE AND RESPIRATORY SYNDROME IN THE WESTERN BALKAN REGION: CHALLENGES AND PROSPECTS

Authors

  • Dinko Novosel
  • Tamaš Petrović Scientific Veterinary Institute “Novi Sad”
  • Žaklin Acinger-Rogić Ministry of Agriculture, Veterinary and Food Safety Directorate
  • Marina Štukelj University of Ljubljana, Veterinary Faculty, Institute for Health Care of Pigs

Abstract

Two decades after its emergence, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) remains a challenge to the sustainability of the porcine industry worldwide. In the Western Balkan region in particular, control of the disease is hampered by fragmentation of pig production; lack of farmer knowledge regarding health care; the fact that most farms are small, single-site pig operations with low biosecurity standards; and intensive trading and import of pigs from different countries without known health status and without quarantine. All these factors contribute to rapid disease transmission among pig operations. PRRS entered the Western Balkan region in 1995, when it appeared in Croatia and slightly later in Serbia, and again after 2004 when it entered Slovenia and potentially other countries. All PRRS cases originally described in the Western Balkans appear to have been caused by infection with type 1 subtype 1 PRRSV; more recently, infection with type 2 virus has also been reported. Veterinary services have an important role to play in monitoring and controlling spread of PRRS, but control programs in the region are either inconsistent or non-existent. Available epidemiological data suggest that new PRRSV introduction into Western Balkan countries is less likely to occur via animal transfers within the region and more likely to occur via arrivals from elsewhere in the EU. Strong efforts are needed to develop and implement guidelines for pig movement, implement biosecurity measures, establish consistent diagnostic testing for PRRS virus, and classified pig herds according to health status and farmer education.

Key words: PRRSV; Slovenia; Croatia; Serbia

 

NAČINI UKREPANJA IN STANJE V NEKATERIH DRŽAVAH ZAHODNEGA BALKANA GLEDE PRAŠIČJEGA REPRODUKCIJSKEGA IN RESPIRATORNEGA SINDROMA (PRRS)

Prašičji reprodukcijski in respiratorni sindrom (PRRS) so dokazali že pred 20 leti in še vedno povzroča velike izgube v prašičereji. V zahodnih balkanskih državah se srečujemo s specifično situacijo; v glavnem obstajajo majhne družinske reje, v katerih navadno ne izvajajo nikakršnih ukrepov zoper PRRS. Večina omenjenih držav ima nizek odstotek samooskrbe s prašičjim mesom, zato ga uvažajo iz drugih evropskih držav. Na podlagi rezultatov lahko sklepamo, da je do vnosa bolezni prišlo najprej na Hrvaškem leta 1995, malo kasneje pa v Srbiji. Drugi pomembni vnos bolezni se je zgodil pol leta po vstopu Slovenije v Evropsko unijo leta 2004. Najpogosteje v zahodnih balkanskih državah ugotavljamo genotip 1 virusa PRRS in podtip 1, medtem ko drugih podtipov, ki se pojavljajo v vzhodnoevropskih državah, nismo dokazali. Poglaviten vzrok neukrepanja zoper PRRS je v zahodnih balkanskih državah nepoznavanje dejanskih izgub, ki jih povzroča bolezen v posamezni reji, v nekaterih državah pa tudi slaba laboratorijska diagnostika. Verjetno je treba med vzroke prišteti tudi nezainteresiranost politike za izvajanje nacionalnih programov ukrepanja zoper PRRS. Izračuni so pokazali, da je PRRS na Hrvaškem leta 2011 povzročil za 17 milijonov EUR izgub v prašičereji. Poglavitni krivec za nastali položaj je veterinarska uprava, ki ni izpeljala potrebnih ukrepov. Širjene bolezni med omenjenimi zahodnimi balkanskimi državami ne predstavlja velikega tveganja, saj praktično ni trgovanja med njimi, nasprotno pa so uvozi iz drugih držav velika nevarnost za vnos novih sevov virusa PRRS. Na podlagi omenjenih dejstev bi bilo treba pripraviti načrt ukrepov zoper PRRS, ki bi med drugim vključevali tudi testiranje na prisotnost tako protiteles kot virusa PRRS in posledično vzpostavitev statusov čred, kar bi pripomoglo k zajezitvi širjenja bolezni.

Ključne besede: PRRSV; Slovenija; Hrvaška; Srbija

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Published

2016-12-31

How to Cite

Novosel, D., Petrović, T., Acinger-Rogić, Žaklin, & Štukelj, M. (2016). EPIDEMIOLOGY AND STATUS OF PORCINE REPRODUCTIVE AND RESPIRATORY SYNDROME IN THE WESTERN BALKAN REGION: CHALLENGES AND PROSPECTS. SLOVENIAN VETERINARY RESEARCH, 53(4). Retrieved from https://slovetres.si/index.php/SVR/article/view/133

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Review Article