Ticks are considered as harmful and economically important ectoparasites because their infestation seriously affects the cattle worldwide. Tick control with synthetic acaricides is not only dangerous for animal and human health but also causes environmental pollution. The present study was designed to evaluate the plant extracts in comparison with synthetic acaricides to control Hyalomma anatolicum. Five different concentrations (50, 100, 250, 500 and 750 ppm) of methanolic plant extracts and acaricides, were employed to evaluate the mortality of ticks after 2, 4, 6, 12, 24 and 48 hrs. Mortality data was analyzed through Probit analysis to calculate the median lethal concentration (LC50) and the median lethal time (LT50). Methanolic extract from Azadirachta indica demonstrated the highest mortality (LC50 = 38.3 ppm) of ticks as compared to Dalbergia sissoo (LC50 = 58.76 ppm) and Morus alba (LC50 = 92.95 ppm). Amongst acaricides, fipronil exhibited highest mortality (LC50 = 35.01 ppm) when compared with emamectin (LC50 = 46.87 ppm) and cypermethrin (LC50 = 37.83 ppm). Higher concentration (750 ppm) of acaricides (fipronil, emamectin and cypermethrin) displayed quicker mortality (LT50 = 6.53-8.95 hrs) as compare to the plant extracts (LT50 = 8.49-29.17 hrs). Effects of these treatments were also studied on egg masses and reproductive index (RI) of the surviving ticks. The results revealed a significant, concentration-dependent variation among the egg masses treated with plant extracts and acaricides; and subsequently, their reproductive index values also decreased significantly. Phytochemical analysis of the tested plant extracts revealed presence of flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids, saponins, tannins and phenols in variable quantities. Conclusively, our results describe a significant scope of environment friendly plant extracts for ticks’ management.

Key words: plant extracts; synthetic acaricides; tick mortality



Izvleček: Klopi veljajo za škodljive in ekonomsko pomembne ektoparazite, kajti njihova okužba po vsem svetu hudo prizadane govedo na paši. Zatiranje klopov s sintetičnimi akaricidi ni nevarno samo za zdravje živali in ljudi, temveč povzroča tudi onesnaževanje okolja. Študija je bila zasnovana z namenom ovrednotenja rastlinskih izvlečkov v primerjavi s sintetičnimi akaricidi za nadzor nad Hyalomma anatolicum. Za oceno umrljivosti klopov po 2, 4, 6, 12, 24 in 48 urah je bilo uporabljenih pet različnih koncentracij (50, 100, 250, 500 in 750 ppm) metanolnih rastlinskih izvlečkov in akaricidov. Podatki o smrtnosti so bili analizirani z analizo Probit za izračun srednje smrtne doze (LC50) in srednjega časa smrti (LT50). Metanolni ekstrakt iz Azadirachta indica je pokazal najvišjo umrljivost (LC50=38,3 ppm) klopov v primerjavi z Dalbergia sissoo (LC50 =58,76 ppm) in Morus alba (LC50=92,95 ppm). Med akaricidi je imel fipronil največji učinek smrtnosti (LC50=35,01 ppm) v primerjavi z emamektinom (LC50=46,87 ppm) in cipermetrinom (LC50=37,83 ppm). Višja koncentracija (750 ppm) akaricidov (fipronil, emamektin in cipermetrin) je pokazala hitrejšo smrtnost (LT50=6,53-8,95 ur) v primerjavi z rastlinskimi ekstrakti (LT50=8,49-29,17 ur). Učinke zdravljenj so preučevali tudi na jajčnih masah in obravnavali reproduktivni indeks (RI) preživelih klopov. Rezultati so pokazali pomembno, koncentracijsko odvisno variacijo med jajčnimi masami, obdelanimi z rastlinskimi izvlečki in akaricidi. Posledično so se vrednosti njihovega reproduktivnega indeksa znatno zmanjšale. Fitokemijska analiza preizkušenih rastlinskih izvlečkov je razkrila prisotnost flavonoidov, steroidov, terpenoidov, saponinov, taninov in fenolov v spremenljivih količinah. Rezultati opravljene raziskave opisujejo pomembne lastnosti okolju prijaznih rastlinskih izvlečkov pri preprečevanju napadov klopov.

Ključne besede: rastlinski izvlečki; sintetični akaricidi; smrtnost klopov


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