Mustafa Yildiz, Mustafa Sandikci


Summary:The aims of this study were to identify the changes that occurred in the uterus and vagina of rats with experimental diabetes, and the effects of orally administered lycopene on these changes. For this research, 30 four-month-old female Wistar Albino rats were used. Experimental diabetes was induced using a single dose of 50 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ). The control and diabetic rats were randomly separated into 4 groups as follows: control+corn oil, control+lycopene, diabetes+corn oil and diabetes+lycopene.Crossman's triple staining and the Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS) methods were applied for the uterine and vaginal slides. Additionally, the uterus was stained with Alcian Blue (AB) pH: 2.5. While the number of glands, thickness of the endometrium, and PAS positive reaction in the glandular epithelium decreased, the AB positive reaction in the glandular epithelium increased in the uterus with the effects of diabetes. In the vagina, it was observed that the height of the lamina epithelialis and the thickness of the tunica muscularis decreased in the diabetes+corn oil group, compared with the control+corn oil. Also, the thickness of the tunica muscularis increased in the diabetes+lycopene group, compared with the diabetes+corn oil group. The changes caused by diabetes in the uterus and vagina, as well as the existence of the protective qualities of lycopene were revealed for the first time, to the best of our knowledge.

Key words: experimental diabetes; lycopene; rat; uterus; vagina

Full Text:



Citil R, Ozturk Y, Gunay O. Metabolic regulation and related factors in diabetic patients referred to a primary health center in provincial center of Kayseri. Erciyes Med J 2010; 32: 111–22.

Ivanova II, Lapshina VF, Anishchenko TG. Reactivity of castrated female rats to estrone in alloxan diabetes. Probl Endokrinol (Mosk) 1977; 23: 77–80.

Favaro RR, Salgado RM, Raspantini PR, Fortes ZB, Zorn TM. Effects of long-term diabetes on the structure and cell proliferation of the myometrium in the early pregnancy of mice. Int J Exp Pathol 2010; 91: 426–35.

Garris DR, Smith C. Diabetes-associated endometrial disruption in the ketonuric, diabetic Chinese hamster. Gynecol Obstet Invest 1983; 16: 86–96.

Burke SD, Dong H, Hazan AD, Croy BA. Aberrant endometrial features of pregnancy in diabetic NOD mice. Diabetes 2007; 56: 2919–26.

Ferrini MG, Nolazco G, Vernet D, Gonzalez-Cadavid NF, Berman J. Increased vaginal oxidative stress, apoptosis, and inducible nitric oxide synthase in a diabetic rat model: implications for vaginal fibrosis. Fertil Steril 2006; 86: 1152–63.

Cushman TT, Kim N, Hoyt R, Traish AM. Estradiol ameliorates diabetes-induced changes in vaginal structure of db/db mouse model. J Sex Med 2009; 6: 2467–79.

Park K, Ryu SB, Park YI, Ahn K, Lee SN, Nam JH. Diabetes mellitus induces vaginal tissue fibrosis by TGF-b1 expression in the rat model. J Sex Marital Ther 2001; 27: 577–87.

Memisogullari R. Diyabette serbest radikallerin rolü ve antioksidanların etkisi. Duzce Medical Journal 2005; 3: 30–9.

Kinalski M, Sledziewski A, Telejko B, Zarzycki W, Kinalska I. Lipid peroxidation and scavenging enzyme activity in streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Acta Diabetol 2000; 37: 179–83.

Rao AV, Ray MR, Rao LG. Lycopene. Adv Food Nutr Res 2006; 51: 99–164.

Ali MM, Agha FG. Amelioration of streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus, oxidative stress and dyslipidemia in rats by tomato extract lycopene. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 2009; 69: 371–9.

Kuhad A, Sharma S, Chopra K. Lycopene attenuates thermal hyperalgesia in a diabetic mouse model of neuropathic pain. Eur J Pain 2008; 12: 624–32.

Zhu J, Wang CG, Xu YG. Lycopene attenuates endothelial dysfunction in streptozotocininduced diabetic rats by reducing oxidative stress. Pharm Biol 2011; 49: 1144–9.

Witte TS, Melkus E, Walterc I, Senged B, Schwabd S, Aurichb C, Heuwieser W. Effects of oral treatment with N-acetylcysteine on the viscosity of intrauterine mucus and endometrial function in estrous mares. Theriogenology 2012; 78: 1199–1208.

Tatewaki R, Otani H, Tanaka O, Kitada J. A morphological study on the reproductive organs as a possible cause of developmental abnormalities in diabetic NOD mice. Histol Histopathol 1989; 4: 343–58.

Kim NN, Stankovic M, Cushman TT, Goldstein I, Munarriz R, Traish AM. Streptozotocin induced diabetes in the rat is associated with changes in vaginal hemodynamics, morphology and biochemical markers. BMC Physiol 2006; 6: 1–9.

Zhou C, Han W, Zhang P, Cai M, Wei D, Zhang C. Lycopene from tomatoes partially alleviates the bleomycin-induced experimental pulmonary fibrosis in rats. Nutr Res 2008; 28: 122–130.

Atessahin A, Yilmaz S, Karahan I, Ceribasi AO, Karaoglu A. Effects of lycopene against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and oxidative stress in rats. Toxicology 2005; 212: 116–23.

Ferreira ALA, Russell RM, Rocha N, Ladeira MSP, Salvadori DMF, Nascimento MCMO, Matsui M, Carvalho FA, Tang G,Matsubara LS, Matsubara BB. Effect of lycopene on doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity: an echocardiographic, histological and morphometrical assessment. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 2007; 101: 16–24.

Bansal P, Gupta SM, Ojha SK, Nandave M, Mittal R, Kumari S, Arya DS. Cardioprotective effect of lycopene in the experimental model of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. Mol Cell Biochem 2006; 289: 1–9.

Yue R, Hu H, Yiu KH, Luo T, Zhou Z, Xu L, Zhang S, Li K, Yu Z. Lycopene protects against hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced apoptosis by preventing mitochondrial dysfunction in primary neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes. Plos One 2012; 7: e50778.

Larsen JF. Electron microscopy of the uterine epithelium in the rabbit. JCB 1962; 14: 49–64.

Pluta K, Irwin JA, Dolphin C, Richardson L, Fitzpatrick E, Gallagher ME, Reid CJ, Crowe MA, Roche JF, Lonergan P, Carrington SD, Evans ACO. Glycoproteins and glycosidases of the cervix during the periestrous period in cattle. J Anim Sci 2011; 89: 4032–42.

Noci IVO, Borri P, Chieffi O, Scarselli G, Biagiotti R, Moncini D, Paglierani M, Taddei G. I. Aging of the human endometrium: a basic morphological and immunohistochemical study. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 1995; 63: 181–5.

Wang C, Umesaki N, Nakamura H, Tanaka T, Nakatani K, Sakaguchi I, Ogita S, Kaneda K. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor by granulated metrial gland cells in pregnant murine uteri. Cell Tissue Res 2000; 300: 285–93.

Zhang JH, Yamada AT, Croy BA. DBA-lectin reactivity defines natural killer cells that have homed to mouse decidua. Placenta 2009; 30: 968–73.

Wick R, Kress A. Ultrastructural changes in the uterine luminal and glandular epithelium during the oestrous cycle of the marsupial monodelphis domestica (grey short-tailed opossum). Cells Tissues Organs 2002; 170: 111–31.

Flamini MA, Díaz AO, Barbeito CG, Portiansky EL. Morphology, morphometry, histochemistry and lectin histochemistry of the vagina of the plains viscacha (Lagostomus maximus). Biotech Histochem 2012; 87: 81–94.

Groot MJ, den Hartog JMP, Gruys E. Influence of androgens on the genital tract of cyclic heifers. Vet Q 1989; 11: 198–209.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Gerbičeva 60, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia, T: +386 (0)1 47 79 100, F: +386 (0)1 28 32 243, E:
Published by